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Managing Produced Water Releases

The exploration and production (E&P) industry uses great care during the handling and disposal of the produced water that is generated as a normal part of oil and gas production. However, unintentional releases can occur.  Depending on the chemical composition of the produced water and the nature of the local environment, salts associated with such releases have the potential to impact soils, vegetation, and water resources.

API has developed a number of technical resources to help producers address produce water releases:

Strategies for Addressing Salt Impacts of Produced Water Releases to Plants, Soil, and Groundwater (API Publication 4758)

This guide provides a collection of simple rules of thumb, decision charts, models, and summary information from more detailed guidance manuals to help you address produced water release issues.

Strategies for Addressing Salt Impacts of Produced Water Releases to Plants, Soil, and Groundwater
44 MB

Order Publication 4758 from IHS publication service

Overview of Publication 4758
Presented at the International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC) Conference
October 2006 - Houston, TX
879 KB

Remediation of Salt-Affected Soils at Oil and Gas Production Facilities (API Publication 4663)

This manual is designed to assist the oil and natural gas professional and field personnel in 1) assessing sites with salt-affected soils, 2) evaluating remedial alternatives and conducting remedial activities, if necessary.

Order Publication 4663 from IHS publication service

Modeling Study of Produced Water Release Scenarios (API Publication 4734)

Numerical modeling was used to identify produced water release scenarios that have a potential to cause groundwater impairment in homogeneous subsurface geologic profiles and to predict chloride movement through the vadose zone for different release scenarios.  Effects of layered geologic settings, multiple releases and surface re-vegetation were also examined.  Producers and consultants will find this document useful for understanding chloride transport in the vadose zone and planning remedial action.

Modeling Study of Produced Water Release Scenarios
3 MB

Software for Evaluating the Potential for Groundwater Impairment

API-AMIGO (v. 1.0 Beta) simulates the chloride concentration in a water table (unconfined) aquifer after an accidental surface release of chloride (e.g. produced water or brine) or after the placement of chloride-rich material at the ground surface, such as in a landfarm or biopile. AMIGO uses the output from library of HYDRUS-1D simulations in a simple ground water mixing model to generate a graph of chloride concentration over time in an imaginary monitoring well located at the edge of the spill, lease or landfarm.

API-AMIGO is available as a public beta release.  Please click here to access API-AMIGO.