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2019 API Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit

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When: January 28, 2019 - January 31, 2019

Where:  Galveston Island Convention Center, Galveston, Texas

Open for Registration Details

Asset Integrity Through Corrosion Management, Inspection, and Engineering Technology

2019 API Inspection And Mechanical Integrity Summit - General Information

2019 Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit - Panel Descriptions

The API Summit was designed with you in mind. This four-day summit includes three days of presentations spanning over 120 topics. Addressing issues involved in asset condition evaluation for drilling, production systems, pipelines, terminals, refining, chemical manufacturing and storage facilities. In addition, an optional day of  training is conducted by subject matter experts. Each day focuses on presentations relevant to upstream, midstream, downstream operation and integrity management. API Inspection Summit provides an opportunity to learn about new and existing industry codes and standards, to hear about emerging trends from experts, and to discuss new and existing issues in inspection and AIM technology. 

The API Summit is the only networking event for inspectors and other inspection support professionals in the industry. As stated by attendees, “The API Summit is the best inspection related conference in the petroleum industry”.

The following oil, gas and chemical sectors will be covered:

  • Upstream (Drilling, Sub Sea, Production Systems, Integrity Management)
  • Midstream (Pipelines, Terminals)
  • Downstream (Refining, Chemical & Storage)

Schedule at a Glance 

Sunday, January 27 Monday, January 28 Tuesday, January 29 Wednesday, January 30  Thursday, January 31
2:00PM - 6:00PM
6:30AM - 6:00PM
7:00AM - 5:00PM
7:00AM - 5:00PM
7:00AM - 12:00PM
    Exhibit Hall Hours:
7:30AM - 6:00PM
Exhibit Hall Hours:
7:30AM - 5:00PM
Exhibit Hall Hours: 
7:30AM - 12:00PM
Opening Reception: 
5:00PM - 6:15PM
(Exhibit Hall)
Epic Pool Party: 
5:30PM - 7:00PM
(San Luis Hotel Pool)

Media Sponsors



Email: or Call: 202-682-8194

2019 Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit - Schedule-at-a-Glance  

2019 Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit - Panel Descriptions

Presentation Abstracts can be viewed below * Subject to Change

8:00 A.M. – 5:00 P.M.

8 Hour Courses


Instructor: Lynne Kaley, P.E., Principal, Trinity Bridge, LLC;

The details of API’s recommended practices (API 580 Third Edition and API 581 Third Edition) will be presented by recognized industry experts and leaders in the development and use of RBI methodology. API RP 580 introduces the principles and presents minimum general guidelines for developing a RBI program for fixed equipment and piping. API 581 provides quantitative RBI methods to establish an inspection program. Together, these two documents comprise a widely-recognized standard for industry-accepted RBI practices. Both of these recommended practices were updated, and new editions released in 2015. The course helps attendees understand and use RBI technology, develop a program, and learn which RBI procedures and working processes comply with industry standards. Additionally, changes between the Second and Third Editions will be highlighted and discussed.


Instructor: David Osage, ASME Fellow, PE, The Equity Engineering Group

This one-day course provides the inspector or engineer with an in-depth overview of the Fitness-For-Service (FFS) Assessment Methods in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, 2016 Edition. The course includes a segment describing how the document is organized, insights on how to navigate through the document to apply FFS technology (i.e. either reactive or proactive), and a review of the three FFS assessment levels and what constitutes a “best-buy,” how do decide on which level to use based on the damage mechanism and NDE information provided. An overview of the Life Cycle Management process for fixed equipment is also provided explaining the interactions between the AMSE and API construction codes, API Inspection codes, and API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. All FFS assessment methods will be discussed with an emphasis on the volumetric damage assessment methods for general and local metal loss and pitting, HIC./SOHIC and hydrogen blisters, crack-like flaw assessment methods and remaining life estimation for high temperature components including an overview of MPC Project Omega. Attendees are encouraged to bring current problems to the class for discussion. The notes provided for the course will cover all Parts of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, 2016 Edition, and are provided to the students for general Information.

Design, Inspection and Assessment of Aboveground Storage Tanks

Instructor: Joel Andreani, P.E., Principal Engineer, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

This session will cover: API 620, 650 and Series 12 Storage Tank Designs – What’s required in the main standards; Other Best Practices. In-Service Inspection of Storage Tanks – API 653 Inspections; Tank RBI in API 653; Other Best Practices. Assessment of Existing Storage Tanks – API 653 Assessments; API 579 Techniques applicable to Tanks; Settlement/Foundation Assessments; Other Tank Mechanical Integrity Best Practices.

Recent Modifications to the API Standards for Design, Installation and Inspection of Pressure Relief Devices

Instructor: Phil Henry, Principal Engineer, Equity Engineering

This class will cover: API Pressure Relief Document Overview – API 520 Overview – Basic Terminology; PRV Design and Operation; Sizing and Selection; Installation Requirements. API 521 Overview – Design Philosophy; Overpressure Scenarios. API 576 Inspection of Pressure Relief Devices – RBI for PRDs per API 521; Inlet Pressure Drop-3% rule; Tube Rupture Scenario; What’s coming in API PRS Standards.

Fired Heater Integrity Optimization Management

Instructor: Tim Hill, Process Engineering Optimization Manager, Quest Integrity USA, LLC

This course is designed for engineers, operators, maintenance, inspectors, safety, and training personnel working with or responsible for integrity issues associated with fired heaters. Fired Heater Integrity Optimization Management helps attendees learn the science of optimizing reliability and performance factors that affect tube integrity management of fired heaters and reformers. This course applies the essential theories, such as IOW, RBI, etc., provided in API Standards and Recommended Practices and practical approaches to fired heater monitoring to evaluate operating risk, damage mechanisms, failure analysis, safety, fitness-for-service and remaining life of critical components. Learn the necessary elements to inspect and maintain fired heaters using best practices that minimize risk, minimize the amount of shutdown work and maximize performance.

Guided Wave Testing of Pipeline, Pressure Vessel, and Tanks

Instructor: Sang Kim, Ph.D., CEO, Guided Wave Analysis, LLC

API RP 583 included guided wave testing (GWT) as a screening method to identify potential areas of CUI damage on piping in 2014. After that, this guided wave testing (GWT) method has been much improved in spatial resolution and sensitivity. GWT method can examine accumulated pitting corrosion of less than 1 % of the pipe cross sectional area and detect 0.3 inch by 0.3inch and half-wall localized defect at 10-ft distance in any diameter of pipe, pressure vessels, and tanks. This course will present basic knowledge of guided wave testing, sensitivity of guided wave testing, spatial resolution, selection of operating center frequency, inspection range, inspection report, high-temperature pipeline testing, CUI and PMI application, and field testing examples of piping, pressure vessels, and tanks. Reports generated with many field testings are presented for showing capabilities and limitations of GWT method. During the course, the GWT method will be demonstrated with sample pipe and plate structure having defects. It is designed for API inspectors, maintenance management personnel, operators responsible for piping, pressure vessels, and tank in oil or gas companies, refinery, chemical, and petrochemical plants. Participants will gain an understanding of ultrasonic guided wave testing method for inspecting piping, pressure vessel, and tank.

Damage Mechanisms Affecting Equipment In the Refining and Petrochemical Industries

Instructor: Isaac Pabon, Materials Engineer, ExxonMobil, Deric Masten, Welding Engineer, Motiva, Carlos Palacios, Ph.D., Upstream Specialist, CIMA-TQ, Tom Pickthall, Jr., Pipeline Specialist, EnhanceCo, Marc McConnell, Corrosion Engineer, Pro-Surve

This class will provide a general background on the material contained in API 571 (Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries). Everyone in the refining industry today, including the refinery owner, refinery operator, mechanical engineer, metallurgist, and process engineer, is looking for ways to prevent or minimize the effects of corrosion. Corrosion control is paramount to the safe and productive operation of a facility. As we all know, a key first step in safety and reliability of our mechanical equipment is the identification and understanding of the relevant damage mechanisms. Proper identification of damage mechanisms is important when: Implementing the API Inspection Codes (510, 570 & 653), conducting risk-based inspection per API 580, and performing a fitness-for-service assessment using API 579. Damage mechanisms need to be understood and considered to determine corrosion rate, location (general or local) and opportunities for mitigation. We will start the day with basics of corrosion and work our way into the most common details of causing corrosion. Audience participation will be greatly encouraged. Those attending are welcome to bring Power Point slides of opportunities and have the class comment on them.

Hydroprocessing Inspector Training

Instructors: Scott McArthur, P66 and Brian Jack

The Hydroprocessing Inspector Training is designed to provide a more in depth understanding on the operations, the basic corrosion / damage mechanisms and inspection considerations specifically found in hydroprcessing units (hydrocrackers and hydrodesulfurization units). This training approach, focusing on the process unit, differs from the typical API 571 (Damage Mechanism) course by providing a wholistic view of unit operation and targeting the specific problems areas for inspection and process monitoring. A fundamental understanding on the operation basics and process control with the resulting damage mechanisms provides a better foundation for establishing a comprehensive mechanical integrity program. This 8 hour training course will cover three key aspects of hydroprocessing as follows; Unit Operation – taught by a Corporate Process Engineering Lead (Scott McArthur – P66) covering the background on unit operation, process variables and control, including basic reactions and potentially corrosive byproduct produced in typical hydrotreating and hydroprocessing units; Damage Mechanisms and Inspection – taught by a Corrosion / Materials Engineer (Brian Jack – former Chief Engineer at P66) covering the different key damage mechanisms that can occur in hydroprocessing, including the typical locations of concern, process variable monitoring (Integrity Operating Windows) and inspection techniques.

8:00 A.M. – 12:00 P.M.

A.M. 4 Hour Courses

CCDs/API 970/API 584

Instructor: Gerrit Buchheim, Refining Metallurgical and Corrosion Expert, Becht Engineering Co., Inc. and Matt Caserta, Mechanical Integrity and Inspection Expert, Becht Engineering Co., Inc

This training course will introduce the attendees to the concepts of Corrosion Control Documents (CCDs) and Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs). This course will review the recommendations and requirements within each API recommended practice for both topics, API 970 for CCDs and API 584 for IOWs, as well as the interaction between the two programs. Additionally, the course will cover how to implement a CCD/IOW program including: resources, team members, process information, inspection highlights, CML data, and among others. Finally, example CCDs and IOWs will be reviewed.

Introduction to Metallurgy for the Inspector or Reliability Equipment Engineer

Instructor: Jeremy Staats, P.E., Becht, Jeremy Nelson, P.E. Flint Hills Resources, Dave Moore, Becht Engineering Co., Inc.

This 4-hour course provides the inspector or fixed equipment/ reliability engineer with an introduction to basic concepts of metallurgy. The course will start with metal processing and forming, go through the various alloys of construction in refining and petrochemical plants, and touch on various aspects of through heat treating and welding. As certain metallurgical concepts are discussed, related damage mechanisms, inspection techniques, and reliability strategies will be covered.

Bolted Flange Joint Inspection Training

Instructor: Scott Hamilton, Founder and CEO, Hex Technology

Hex Technology trains individuals on the design and importance of each individual part of the BFJA (academic training). This will cover: Introduction to ASME PCC-1; Introduction to “Appendix-O” of PCC-1 and Limiting Factors; Joint cleaning for inspection requirements; Inspection and mitigation for flange/nut contact region; Inspection for gasket seating surface finish; Inspection for gasket seating surface imperfections; Inspection for gasket seating surface flatness; For both raised face and RTJ; In-Service inspection criteria; Setting manual & “Powered Equipment” wrenches.

Characteristics of the High Performing Inspector

Instructor: Mark Smith, MSTS-Training

Most inspectors are on jobs that present significant challenges. Technical situations, relationships with other plant departments, and high workloads are just some of the common challenges facing today’s inspectors. Sometimes, technically qualified inspectors, still underperform in their work assignments. Why? Often it is because of their limited abilities in important non-technical skills. This training session will help inspection personnel see a broad picture of the make-up of a High-Performing Inspector. Key focus in this training session will be the non-technical skills and character qualities that set apart the High Performing Inspectors. Throughout this session there will be plenty of “real-world” illustrations of individuals demonstrating the Key Points! Major points in the discussion include: Keep developing new talents – both technical and non-technical skills (writing, organizing, persuasive communication, directing others, etc.). Many inspectors run from important issues like corrosion mechanisms. The most successful will “run toward their fears”; Go the “Extra Mile” – do more than expected; Get excited about making others successful; Avoid organizational killers - no whining, no back stabbing, etc.

1:00 P.M. – 5:00 P.M.

P.M. 4 Hour Courses

Bolted Flange Joint Assembly

Instructor: Scott Hamilton, Founder and CEO, Hex Technology

The Bolted Flange Joint Assembly (BFJA) has several critical pieces that need to be inspected during assembly. Some of these items include: bolts, nuts, flange surfaces, gasket sealing surfaces, and setting of torque wrenches. In order to understand what to inspect, it is imperative to understand why those items are important to the overall BFJA.

Overview of ASME PCC-2 through Case Studies

Instructor: George Antaki, PE, Fellow ASME, Becht Engineering Company

A four-hour overview of vessels, piping, and tank repair options addressed in PCC-2, through case studies. Each repair technique will include lessons learned, dos-and-don’ts, and similarities and differences in implementation among industries. The repair options are subdivided into welded repairs, mechanical repairs, and non-metallic wrap repairs. For each repair, the overview will provide a practical checklist of the design, implementation, NDE, and leak testing considerations.

The Inspector Writes – Technical Writing for Inspectors

Instructor: Mark Smith, MSTS-Training

This presentation will: Emphasize the importance of good writing skills for individuals in the pressure equipment discipline; Provide a brief overview of the importance and use of inspection narratives; Provide simple writing rules that are useful when performing technical writing, i.e. inspection narratives; Encourage listeners that technical writing skills are a learnable skill! It is not just for those with “natural abilities”!


Training Course Schedule

#3 How Risk-Based Inspection Challenged My Life

Brent Ray, Marathon Petroleum Corporation

In this crazy world we live in, someone or some group of people decided that statistics could actually predict - within reason - when a piece of equipment would fail.  However, this doesn't account for the spontaneity of the universe in popping the cork a bit too soon.  Nor does it account for the mistakes that human beings are so prone to make.  It has been an extremely painful pleasure to work with risk-based inspection and its methodology over the years, but sometimes we take it a little too seriously.  This presentation will try to be lighthearted and provide examples of where RBI can be difficult to manage or implement, including ruining my life at times.

#69 Enhanced RBI for exchanger bundles

Ricardo Gonzalez, Total SA

"The application of RBI for exchanger bundles presents several challenges. Approaches that address business interruption are often too conservative and expensive to implement. Inspecting thousands of tubes is too expensive and not practical, but smaller samples do not always accurately represent the rest of the bundle. TOTAL R&C presents a method that was developed based on the API 581 method and enhanced using statistical treatment of the NDT data through Extreme Value Analysis. This enhanced model allowed us to optimize the scope of NDT during turnarounds, improve process availability, and refine our response to process-related corrosion issues. The approach was applied to more than 1600 bundles by 2016 and is now standard practice"

#72 Owner User Modification of API-581 Levels of Inspection Effectiveness Procedures

Mark Vining, MISTRAS Group, Inc.

"The intent is to clarify that Owner User interpretation of Part 2, Annex 2.C of the API 581 base resource document (BRD) can justify the modification of the Levels of Inspection Effectiveness (LoIE) procedures used to plan and document a risk based inspection program. Additional value is derived from improved application of inspection techniques based on more appropriate inspection related activities designed specifically for the organization by internal and external subject matter experts (SMEs). Modification of the procedures can generate exceptional value when performed in collaboration with individuals trained in the generation and execution of professionally developed procedures. The Owner User/SME collaboration aids in the reduction of a facility risk profile through the creation and utilization of professionally engineered and customized risk based inspection plans."

#83 Case Study: Qualitative Risk Assessment of a Refrigeration System

Robert Sladek, Asset Optimization Consultants

"This case study will present the methods that were used to calculate qualitative risk for a critical refrigeration system and the results of the assessment.  This case study is intended to demonstrate how a Qualitative Risk Assessment can be a cost-effective and resource-efficient means to prioritize equipment often under the radar. This assessment was performed to scope a capital, reliability investment by focusing the inspections, improvements and repairs to ensure reliable future operation. Probability was assessed using simple hoop stress, historical and expected corrosion rates and also accounted for unique damage mechanisms. Consequence was tabulated on Safety, Environmental and Operational factors based on Site SME review and assignment. A non-standard risk matrix was developed based on the needs of the site."

#91 Benefits & Limitations of using RBI on ASTs

John Britton, DNV GL

The presentation will detail the benefits as well as limitations for implementing risk based inspection (RBI) on above ground storage tanks (ASTs) using API 581 methodology. The presentation will highlight the differences between AST RBI and Vessel / piping RBI including differing input variables and output calculations. During the presentation a comparison between API 653 section 6 condition/time based versus risk based will be discussed. To show the potential benefits of performing RBI on ASTs, the presentation will also show the highlights of a case study for over 100 ASTs at a single refining facility.

#103 Risk-based inspection applied to Russian refineries

Karina Allogulova ,ZAO “GIAP-DIST Center”

"Russian regulations require shutdown, inspection and repair of refinery equipment at specific intervals. Recently, they have permitted extension to the run-time based on an accepted probability ranking of assets. The presentation will: Overview the usage of the risk-based approaches applied to assets within Russian oil refineries; Specify the difficulties faced by users during the implementation; Demonstrate the gradation of assets according to the degree of risk. This system led to the optimization of the inspection program by defining efficient resource allocation including the methods assigned, the volume and frequency of the inspection been implemented. Show the methodology approved by the Russian Federation to increase time between shutdowns."

#108 Can you Manage RBI Records real-time during a Turnaround? Absolutely!

Guy Bogar, TGR Industrial Services

So you implemented RBI, let's take it to the next level. Lets go for real-time RBI turnaround management. This presentation will present a case study of our goal to update records in real time during the execution of a major turnaround. We will present some of the challenges that occurred, our solutions to those challenges, and of course a comparison of expected management results versus actual results. If you have ever been working on turnaround paperwork months after execution or thought that getting all your turnaround data updated during execution would be too daunting, cost prohibitive, and downright impossible; this session is for you.

#118 RBI Pitfalls and Best Practices

Mark Harmody, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

After implementing and reassessing hundreds of process units in upstream, midstream, and mostly downstream, we have witnessed what works and what doesn't.  This presentation will focus on best practices, general tips, and pitfalls for beginning an RBI program, maintaining it, and reassessing the analyses in the future.  Citing real world examples, this presentation will emphasize the importance of initiating a pilot RBI assessment, selling it to management, documenting the process, insisting on high data quality, choosing RBI methodologies, timing the implementations, moving from a time-based to a risk-based program, updating after inspection, planning for reassessments, and quantifying the benefits of RBI.

#144 How People, Processes and Technology provide RBI Program Success

Monica Hernandez, Lloyds Register Energy Canada Limited

"Why should you adopt a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) program? In order to maximize efficiency, it is critical to strike the right balance between safety, risk, cost, and performance. This presentation will provide ideas and further guidance on how to implement a successful RBI program. It is important to understand the three fundamental pillars, which are Process, People, and Technology otherwise known as the Golden Triangle. RBI is both a dynamic and systematic process that helps companies gain valuable knowledge about risk. The program highlights potential blind spots in process units or facilities such as damage mechanisms, risk profiles, and inspection needs. RBI provides a proactive approach to enhance and create a safer, more reliable operation."

#153 Using Actual Pop Test results to determine PRD Risk

Hassan (Shervin) Sadeghi, Lloyd's Register

"Traditional API 581 risk approach can have mixed results for establishing PRVs inspection interval. Probability of Failure (PoF) is low for most cases therefore Consequence of Failure (CoF) drives risk, leading to impractical inspection frequencies. This coerces the engineering teams to evaluate other more realistic inspection intervals for cost/safety reasons either based on experience or industry data rather than asset information. An alternative adaptive methodology is discussed in this presentation where PoF and CoF are based on user defined Risk Reduction Targets and Safety Integrity Levels. This methodology captures how using actual in-service testing results rather than default values can deliver a more representative PoF and how it  can be reliably used to deliver an optimum test frequency based on quantitative assessment of failure modes."

#161 Qualitative RBI Approach For Heat Exchanger Damages Mitigation

Ahmad Raza Khan Rana, Dalhousie University

Heat exchangers with welded channel heads and helical twisted tapes inside tubes (called spiro-vanes) pose great inspection and repair challenges. Such heat exchangers are  common in cryogenic process applications. In the absence of sound RBI implementation in inspection plans, certain damage mechanisms and failure modes could remain un-addressed leading to catastrophic failure of the heat exchangers. This presentation highlights a case study of different damage mechanisms (cold weld cracking, cooling water corrosion etc.) that caused permanent failure of a cryogenic heat exchanger. This presentation details a simplified and cost-effective RBI strategy to mitigate various risks associated with such heat exchangers. Finally, it provides guidelines to various stakeholders (Inspectors, Engineers and managers etc.) to assist with decision making even in the absence of quantified data.

#171 Interaction of RBI, IOWs and CCDs in mechanical integrity programs

Juergen Deininger, TUEV SUED Industry Service GmbH

An important step in RBI is the definition of corrosion loops within a plant, as it serves as a basis for the subsequent analysis for probability of failure. Proper documentation can be done in Corrosion Control Documents (CCDs), containing critical factors, corrosion history, etc. The document can serve the asset engineer as a helping tool for MOC meetings and helps to keep corrosion knowledge and history within the organization when employees leave the organization. The gained knowledge can be used for the definition of Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs) with measurement frequencies, predefined actions etc. The list of IOWs is also documented in the Corrosion Control Documents. Excursions from IOWs can be used for inspection planning and evergreening of RBI or RBI-reassessments.

#241 Case Study: Steam System Risk Mitigation using RBI

Robert Sladek, Asset Optimization Consultants

This unit had undergone many upgrades over its 60 years of operation.  The unintended consequences of these "upgrades" revealed many issues, some which threatened shutdown.  Risk Based Inspection was used to prioritize steam, condensate and BFW piping in this aged unit.   This project resulted in inspection and maintenance mitigation recommendations prioritized based upon risk. The presentation will cover the project scope, required inputs, mitigation recommendations and the prioritized mitigation implementation methodology.

#283 RBI model for creep based on Larson Miller parameters

Panos Topalis, DNV GL and Lynne Kaley, Trinity Bridge

A new model for the calculation of the probability of failure (PoF) of furnace tubes and boiler components from creep has been developed. The long-term creep model uses Larson Miller parameters from the industry standard API RP 530. A limit state function involving creep remaining life is defined and PoF is calculated through integration based on the mean value first order second moment (MVFOSM) approximation. The effect of variability of creep stress and temperature on the PoF is investigated. The PoF calculation can also take into account metallurgical replication results. The model is currently considered for a ballot for the next edition of API RP 581

#285 Risk-Based Inspection Methodology for Bundles, Tanks and Furnace Tubes

Lynne Kaley, Trinity Bridge, LLC

Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) is accepted and has been widely used to optimize inspection activities in the industry starting in the 1990’s. While RBI for pressure vessels has been generally accepted and managed, special equipment using risk-based practices have been more challenging. The presentation will outline approaches for application to heat exchanger bundles, storage tanks and fired heater tubes being discussed and tested in the API RP 581 committee. Examples of risk results and recommended inspection and/or replacement will be included to demonstrate the approach.

#299 Fired Heater Risk-Based Inspection Methodology

Phil Henry, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

"In addition to the risks of tube rupture, fired heaters have a significant additional risk of explosions due to poor combustion management.  An RBI program that includes fixed equipment (vessels, piping, exchangers, etc.) without addressing the unique risks associated with fired heater operation ignores one of the major sources of risk on an operating unit. The presentation will provide a method for performing risk-based inspection and risk mitigation of fired heaters that fits well within the structure of an API 581 based RBI program.   The method provides state of the art probabilistic models for combined creep and thinning damage for predicting Probability of Failure (POF) of heater tubes.  Case studies will be provided with real world fired heater data from Owner/Users"

#315 Evergreening an RBI-Based Inspection Program

Ben Charlton, Valero Three Rivers

Successful Evergreening of an Inspection Program is critical to assuring asset availability, mechanical integrity and code compliance. Every new asset, repair, process change or excursion must be evaluated to determine its effects on the Mechanical Integrity Program and to ensure that RBI correctly models the damage mechanisms that may be present. Processes and procedures that reliably provide consistent Evergreening results must be in place and staff must be dedicated to the Evergreening process. This presentation will describe an owner-user’s Evergreening process to maintain data as current and valid to support the mechanical integrity program and assist in planning turnarounds, repairs, replacements and upgrades.

#329 Non-Intrusive NDT and Customized RBI Solutions

Siddarth Sanghavi, PinnacleART

"With the recent downfall in oil prices, it is becoming increasingly difficult to optimize operating costs while efficiently maintaining asset integrity, managing risk, and safely meeting production targets. A customized semi-quantitative RBI program with a proactive approach to addressing asset risk by utilizing API 580 and 581 recommended practices along with emphasis placed on utilizing on-stream inspection techniques can help support production goals, minimize equipment downtime while maintaining mechanical integrity of assets and mitigating any HSE risks. Performing such a RBI analysis for an upstream processing facility resulted in an increase of long-term availability of the facility, and in turn, will provide increased production revenue of $16 million USD for next 5 years. Target Level of Audience: Experienced/Advanced - Inspectors, Asset/Mechanical Integrity Managers, Plant Managers"

#397 Objective Comparison of Two RBI Methodologies and Results

Clay White, Phillips 66

This presentation covers the comparison of two different commercially available RBI analysis methods applied to a Refinery Crude and Hydroprocessing Units. To the degree possible, data and program settings were identical to produce a reasonable comparison of the results. This presentation focuses on the key differences between the analysis results obtained and objectively identifies the technical calculation / approach differences that resulted in the likelihood, consequence and risk of failure with corresponding inspection recommendations.

#398 Utilizing RBI to Evaluate Feed and Other Operational Changes

Clay White, Phillips 66

"This presentation covers the use of RBI to evaluate key operational changes for individual equipment and grouped equipment identifying the resulting risk of failure and corresponding inspection recommendations. The following topics will be addressed: The ability to assign equipment to common groups (corrosion systems / circuits) to streamline the analysis and comparison; Key aspects of evaluating the difference in likelihood and risk with focus on consideration for total equipment life cycle cost when evaluating opportunity feedstocks."

#5 Maintaining Aging Infrastructures in Upsream Operations - A Continuum of Approaches

Travis Harrington, Anadarko

Upstream Operations normally involve assets that are exposed to harsh marine environments for most of their asset life. To maintain these structures and their supporting infrastructure is a continuous and focused effort of prevention over the course of their lifecycle. This presentation will cover some of the more critical maintenance and Integrity topics and approaches. The presentation will begin with early life cycle and will continue thru to decommissioning to show the varying approaches and planning that typically takes place.

#30 Insights from Scale Deployment of Non-Intrusive Inspection Across Upstream assets

George Williamson, BP

Some BP regions have utilized Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for pressure vessel integrity endorsements since the mid-1980s. BP has recently deployed a NII strategy to scale across the Upstream asset base. This paper provides insights into program implementation including threat assessment, inspection, metrics, and the overall benefits. The positive impacts include the improvement of operational efficiency, optimizing integrity resource allocations, and the elimination of high risk activities such as opening & blinding, facilities shut-down / start-up and Confined Space Entry (CSE).

#32 Erosion in bypass of level Control Valve in gas plant

Hatam, Mehraz, Saudi Aramco

The present study has been conducted to investigate the failure of one inch bypass line of level control valve (LCV) in  gas plant. The bypass is exposed to high pressure gas condensate with maximum 1.3psig H2S from NGL and leaked after 16 years in service. The investigation was conducted in laboratory has advanced grinding and polishing equipment  and failure type with its possible root causes were identified, also recommendations and upgrading material to prevent reoccurrence were well explained in this paper.

#38 Mitigation & Control Strategy for Organic Acid Corrosion

Afizza Izzma Mustapa, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd

This paper describes about a case study of an offshore gas platform LOPC cases due to organic acid corrosion in CO2 environment. A few numbers of LOPCs reported in the same year, after 4 years in operation which indicates a premature failure and it was found out that the high organic acid content may have accelerated the corrosion rate within months. A few screening methods has been deployed to assess and monitor the equipment integrity, i.e Hybrid Acoustic Technology System (HATS), Computerised Radiography (CR) & MMM which enables timely decision and piping change out thus reducing LOPCs cases. Corrosion control activity via chemical treatment was also implemented to reduce the acidic condition and sustain asset integrity performance.

#41 Control Measures During Project for Minimizing Dead Leg in Piping

Barzan Saleh, Kuwait Oil Company

"Dead legs are part of piping system that normally have no significant flow/intermittent flow/Stagnant condition which could lead to accelerated localized pitting corrosion resulting in leaks. Describes  pipe rupture failure investigation near to a Dead Leg location in one of the KOC facilities and the key findings/recommendations  along with the preventive, corrective actions implemented/planned during Project Stage. Effective review of P&ID/Model Review during the FEED /Detailed Design/Construction  of  facility is of paramount importance in eliminating/minimizing  dead legs in  facility. Besides the design review, adequate inspection during Construction activities to maintain  slope requirement in the piping as required. Also the challenges associated with minimize/eliminating the dead legs of piping, inspection during construction and NDT inspection during in service of the dead leg portion."

#47 Popular O&G inspections using PAUT and TFM

Dillon Smith & Guillaume Neau, M2M NDT, Inc.

Flange-, pin-, bolt -inspections are growing applications of the NDT market. There are currently numerous techniques for the inspection of sealing surfaces using regular phased-array ultrasound techniques (PAUT). M2M has implemented multiple total focusing method (TFM) techniques for the inspection of these structures. This article describes how the inspections can be achieved with higher resolution and repeatability using TFM-capable flaw detectors. A comparison between standard PAUT and TFM imaging is also discussed. As both of these ultrasound techniques have pros and cons depending on the inspection case, the competitive advantage of offering both in portable units is illustrated.

#54 Subsea Inspection with Game Changing MEC Technology

Andreas Boenisch, Innospection Ltd.

"Corrosion is a constant challenge especially in ageing subsea assets. This presentation focuses on how the next generation MEC (Magnetic Eddy Current) technology and its applicable is able to fill inspection gaps in the oil and gas industry. The MEC technique and the following case studies on MEC application and field experiences shall be presented: Non-piggable Subsea Pipelines As most subsea pipelines are non-piggable, Innospection has developed an external fast scanning package based on a tethered MEC solution capable of accessing and scanning the non-piggable subsea pipelines, flowlines and manifold pipes. Subsea Umbilicals, Risers and Flowlines (SURF) Externally coated subsea assets like caissons, risers, flexible risers can be inspected by the range of MEC-Combi inspection tools with high level of defect detection."

#57 SURF RBI - Cost Effective Solutions to Mitigate Identified Risks

Eric Allen, DNVGL

SURF RBI continues to be an ever evolving subject as technology evolves, processes and procedures improve, and the user gains more knowledge. As a follow up to the API Inspection Summit presentation in 2017, "Subsea RBI – State of the Art Review," the purpose of this presentation is to provide case studies of cost effective solutions that were identified in RBI processes.  Case studies to be presented include: 1) SCSSV testing optimization to reduce downtime and increase production; 2) Subsea CP hotspot modeling and  frequency optimization to reduce costly offshore vessel time; 3) Real time riser fatigue monitoring using advanced ML and ANN; and 4) Unmanned, automated and autonomous technology for conducting subsea inspection to deliver > 50% cost savings compared to current practices.

#63 Asset Integrity Management best practices

Tony Poulassichidis, Anadarko corporation

"The presentation provides a high level review of a proposed asset integrity (AI) process covering the asset/facility lifecycle. The main objective is to provide an understanding of select AI supporting technologies. Specifically will cover reliability modelling, risk based inspection (RBI) and reliability centered maintenance (RCM).  These technologies are part of the “work selection” step of an AIM work process and based on engineering data and analysis  enable us to prioritize activities and select optimum design for the asset lifecycle. For each AI method, the short introduction to its fundamentals will be followed by case study that demonstrates the application benefits."

#64 Inspection process: The "What", "When", "Who" and "How"

Tony Poulassichidis, Anadarko Corporation

"The presentation provides an inspection process overview for fixed equipment and identifies the four main inspection process questions that are required for success: the “What”, “When”, “How” and “Who”. Case studies based on gas plant facilities work are presented to describe the corrosion mechanisms review and determining inspection intervals. Discussion is further focused on presenting advantages and disadvantages for setting inspection intervals based on a) time criteria, b) risk based inspection and c) a hybrid approach that is grounded on time criteria and mainly focused on likelihood-of failure analysis."

#71 CML Optimization / Allocation

Grady Hatton, Pro-Surve Technical Services, LLC.

"CML optimization and allocation continues to be a large part of the industries reliability programs. Whether it is a new expansion or aging facility, the placement of CML’s can be a major factor in the inspection budget. Gaining confidence that the CML is giving the most for the money spent is of paramount importance. Understanding how palcement of the CML adds quality to the inspection dataand thereby allows for accurate corrosion forcasting. The main objective of the presentation will be to discuss the need for damage mechanism studies, inspector experience, IOW's, and the utilization of existing knowledge and science to better understand the placement of CML's  and formulate mechanical integrity test plans. Defining your scope where CML's are concerned should be clear and precise."

#73 Proactive Design Criterion to Maximize Integrity of Facility Assets

Meshary Al-Bahli, Saudi Aramco

In-service inspection is a key element in assuring the integrity of oil and gas facilities. Current Inspection techniques can be highly effective in determining the asset integrity, provided that the component is designed for inspection. However, the deployment of on-stream inspection are largely affected by the equipment configuration and accessibility provisions inherited from the design phase. In addition, absence of fabrication data increases the difficulty in segregating between manufacture/construction defects. This paper present front-loading the inspectability and testability factors that need to be considered in the design of any O&G asset. This has been done by drawing from lessons learned of plant operation and inspection to compile a guidance that should be attained when designing a plant asset to ensure practicality of performing on-stream inspections.

#77 Assessing Performance of a Corrosion Control Program & Data Analytics

Jamie Davidson, Lloyd's Register Energy Americas Inc.

To further optimize Asset Integrity Management (AIM) programs both the inspection and corrosion control programs should be interactive and proactive. This will move programs away from high OPEX costs and volumes of inspection searching for corroded equipment and towards management of fluid corrosion properties. This presentation will cover a real-life example looking at the corrosion profile of a production process train on an upstream facility. By assessing the data collected and understanding the actual corrosion properties of the process both through data trending and visualization, the effectiveness of the corrosion control program can be evaluated with recommendations to further improve it. This assessment also includes an economic assessment looking at the associated costs for maintaining or improving a CCP against losses for downtime repairing equipment.

#85 Moving from Conformance to Improvement: A Case for Quality Management

Joey Poret, Chevron Corporation

The manufacturing industry has developed and implemented a framework for quality improvement for almost 50 years now, beginning with the work of W. E. Deming in Japan through the implementation of Lean Six Sigma and Total Quality Management.  The results, if to be believed, are impressive, so why hasn't the Oil and Gas sector fully embraced this transformational culture?  This presentation will discuss the roadblocks to quality improvement implementation in the upstream sector and provide real-world examples in Chevron Thailand of where these projects have succeeded and failed.

#86 Improving Quality in Offshore Projects: Adding Value Through Inspection

Joey Poret, Chevron Corporation

Harold Dodge famously said many years ago, "You cannot inspect quality into a product".  This maxim is often repeated by miserly project leaders looking to reduce staffing levels and sharpen project budgets.  While the wisdom of this statement may be true in a pure Lean Manufacturing context, does it hold true in the complex world of Engineer, Procure, and Construct (EPC) project management?  If not, at what point in the project life-cycle does using quality control resources add the most value?  This presentation discusses a case study in the improvement of quality in an Upstream Production construction management process.  The project looks at how the reallocation and optimization of resources (not the addition of resources) helped reduce project rework and improve overall project quality.

#120 An Inspired Approach to Inspection Methodology for Upstream Production Tanks

Elizabeth Brueckner, G.K. Hills Consulting Ltd.

"Storage tank inspection and reporting requirements are mandated by regulators in Canada. Diversity in characteristics amongst tanks and their systems means various tank installations have different inspection components to ensure integrity and minimize spill events. Tank owners are challenged by inefficient processes and outmoded systems. Following analysis of extensive tank data from varied sources, a mobile application was developed that reduces field time in capturing data while improving its accuracy. Users are only presented with questions relevant to the facility they are examining. Field evaluation showed immediate benefits, providing coverage of 100% of cases with immediate identification of deficiencies previously unobserved, or whose severity had been inappropriately assigned. Resulting data archived and integrated with systems in real time, maximizing efficiency and profitability."

#121 Offshore Well Casing Repair & Remediation Alternatives

Chanat Sirisoonthorn, Chevron Thailand Exploration and Production, Ltd.

"Preventing chance of oil spill, the leakage on surface casing from marine atmospheric corrosion is manipulated by premature well plug and abandonment due to the difficulty of repairing especially on the splash zone. This study covered the alternatives of prolonging lifetime on surface casing at splash zone to enhance well integrity instead of abandonment. The studied alternatives include sealing clamp, clamp with compound injection, epoxy sleeve and full encirclement sleeve (with underwater welding operation). These repairing methods' efficiency and limitation are considered based on the repair feasibility, design life, safety, economic justification and removal difficulty. The audience working in upstream and coping with well integrity management will acknowledge about individual pros and cons and be able to apply with other condition and field of work."

#123 Ensuring Piping integrity for Oil & Gas Asset Performance Management

Haitham AlKanderi, Kuwait Oil Company

Ensuring integrity of process piping systems in Oil & Gas facilities is a key issue with respect to the process, business, safety and the environment. Enhanced asset performance can only be achieved by robust piping integrity management program. This presentation highlight a methodology to identify & assess condition of critical piping system in presence of high water/moisture content along with corrosive gases like H2S/CO2. Critical piping were identified based on the service guidelines provided in API 570, past failure history, material of construction, chemical injection location and corrosion monitoring. The condition assessment done by MUT/LRUT/Radiography. Moreover, this methodology enables Integrity Managers & Engineers to take timely decisions for maintaining piping integrity and enhance Asset performance in a cost-effective way.

#137 CLASS and CAIP oil tanker survey using drones and software

Patrick Saracco, Cyberhawk Innovations

"Cyberhawk completed the first full CLASS and CAIP inspection of 19 tanks using a drone, achieving “no objection” from the American Bureau for Shipping. Requirements include close visual inspection and thickness measurements. Cyberhawk will discuss how drones minimised the risks of traditional access methods (transportation, setup and removal, personnel requiring to climb on/off scaffolding and potential damage to the vessel’s tank coatings). FPSO operators will hear how 19 tanks were inspected by two people in 21 days, versus more than 30 people in 70 days. Using drones also led to a 50% cost reduction, allowing US shipyards to become more competitive in project bidding. The presentation will also cover how the inspection results were digitised and hosted in sector-specific cloud-based asset management software."

#138 In-Line Inspection of Shut-In Pipelines

Ali Al-Asfour, Kuwait Oil Company

"Kuwait Oil Company(KOC) maintains a large network of pipelines to transport Gas and liquid from gathering centers. Some of the pipelines are shutdown due to operational. It is not possible to carry out ILI for such pipelines using conventional free-swimming tools even though the pipeline are piggable. A production field including 2nos. oil pipelines were shutdown urgently. Mothballing could not be carried out immediately; hence, the integrity for the pipeline for safe operation required to be established. Various options were analysed with respect to the inspection, modification/support service requirements and time/cost. A plan was put in place in consultation with the ILI provider and both the pipelines were successfully inspected. This presentation describes the process and how challenges were overcome to carry out integrity inspection."

#181 Update of API 12 Series Tank Specification and Inspection Documents

George L. Morovich, Tank and Environmental Technologies, Inc.

This presentation will provide an overview of revisions to API 12 Series Storage Tank Specifications (12B, 12D, 12F & 12P), the Facility Set-up, Operation & Inspection Document (12R1) and report on completed API Funded 12F & 12D Research. In response to Owner Operator needs, an objective to increase capacity and working pressure is achieved.

#221 QA/QC – Cost versus Value

Holley Baker, Mistras Group, Inc.

"This presentation is intended to describe the quality assurance (QA) requirement in the mechanical integrity element of the PSM rule, what impact it has on design, construction and installation, and downstream effects of overlooking QA from a value versus cost perspective. It provides a review of QA issues including missed design opportunities, fabrication defects, non-compliance to configuration and dimension specifications, shipping damages that were not identified until after installation, and improper installations that adversely affected safe operation. Our industry can benefit from a clearer understanding of the regulatory view of QA. There remain many facilities  that lack appropriately applied QA programs. This presentation will provide valuable insight into the specifics of proven QA programs and their relationships to conceptual and detailed design, vendor qualification, vendor surveillance, new installations and spare parts and will include recommendations for the resolution of issues regarding this topic. This presentation will explore the boundaries of acceptable and unacceptable reliance on vendors and suppliers, and will provide information relevant to upper management, middle management and field personnel. It will explain the value of defining, establishing and maintaining appropriate practices and documentation necessary for the quality of critical assets."

#246 Advances in Phased Array Inspection of API 620 LNG Tanks

Chris Magruder, Olympus

The increase in LNG tank fabrication projects worldwide combined with the success of portable phased array systems for replacement of radiography has created a demand in the market for off the shelf inspection system solutions that do not disrupt production.  Similar to stainless steel weld inspection, the Inconel625 weld is a coarse grained, anisotropic material that requires unique consideration for the phased array probe and wedge designs, and inspection strategy.  This paper presents an overview of traditional market solutions for LNG tank inspection using conventional UT and phased array probes, and recent improvements that make replacement of radiography with off the shelf portable phased array systems more accessible in the market.  Also included is a live demonstration of LNG weld data analysis and flaw sizing.

#269 Integrity management with Pressure relief valve at KOC

Arnad Gupta, Kuwait Oil Company

Kuwait Oil Company has a significant  number of pressure relief devices in their facilities, with variations in design and capacity. Inspection, overhaul and testing of these valves which cater to wide-ranging services like hydrocarbon, chemicals, air, utility water pose a significant challenge to inspection personnel.  It is  highlighted how in-house integrity management program helped in establishing confidence in the existing relief system through stage-wise analytical assessment of inspection history. Pre-pop history of relief valves were reviewed for initial identification of valves with repetitive failures.  Further statistical analysis for repeated pre-pop failures were  carried out vis-à-vis the  service, to ascertain reason of recurrence. Possible contributory factors like site conditions, valve transportation practices, fluid cleanliness, maintenance practices were analyzed for  corrective actions as deemed necessary.

#278 Pipeline Metal Loss Evaluations per API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 Fitness-For-Service Rules

Kraig Shipley, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

Analysis procedures from the current edition of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, “Fitness-For-Service,” applicable to piping systems and pipeline components subjected to local and general metal loss are presented. The applicable sections of the API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 standard will be covered, including evaluation methodologies for local and general metal loss. In this presentation, special attention will be devoted to discussing the applicability, limitations, and common misconceptions of the two thickness averaging procedures (i.e., critical thickness profile approach and point thickness reading approach) documented in Part 4 of API-579/ASME FFS-1 as well as other techniques used in industry (e.g. 3t x 3t technique). Finally a case study is considered in which the procedures discussed herein are used to perform an FFS evaluation of Slug Catcher piping components.

#286 Planar Array Tool for Volumetric Surface Defect Detection and Measurement

Paul Lott, Exxam Systems LLC

"The problem of protecting in-service surface production systems and safe operation relates to the need for adequate information, diagnostics, and prognosis of  conditions necessary for calculating the remaining life before the onset of a warning, critical or limit state. This is a four level information problem. The most important information required is: Level 1- Is there any damage?  Level 2- Where is the damage located?   Level 3- How bad is the damage?  Level 4- How will the damage affect the remaining useful life? An electromagnetic planar array tool has been developed for corrosion detection and measurement on in-service, insulated surface production systems. This significantly advanced technology addresses the first three levels by externally scanning for internal and external anomalies.and characterizing their severity wiyhout insulation removal.."

#293 Advances in Nondestructive Assessment of Used Oilfield Coiled Tubing

Roderic Stanley, NDE Information Consultants

"Used  coiled  tubing is damaged by corrosion, mechanical means, is difficult to inspect, and prone to field failures. Conventional NDE consists of several non-contact methods but knowing when to inspect as the tube fatigues is problematic. Equally important when assessing signals from NDE is the relation between MFL signals and their relation to the accumulated fatigue in the tubing, since it is operated in fatigue with 2-3% strain. Algorithms were produced (neural nets) to recognize MFL signal attributes from known imperfections, and then relate them to consumed fatigue that  added to the tubing each run, and finally to determine when the tubing string should be withdrawn from service. This is the link between NDE and the material’s performance for this product that reduces downhole failures."

#296 Aging Asset Optimisation

Hossam Aboegla, Llyod's Register Energy

"Objective. The emerging demands for managing aging issues and life-extension requirements to ensure sustainable and safe operation, should be evolved into a holistic framework of asset integrity management strategy (AIMS). Challenges and status Poor management of aging assets challenge any requirements for effective assessment or decision making. Hence, exsiting uncertainties may result in unforeseen future costs and catastrophic failures. Methodology The framework eliminated traditional silos of asset management between topside, pipeline and subsea facilities. Therefore, a holistic approach in developing consistent and integrated AMS, was a necessity to manage different components in a standardized way. Deliverables Net reduction in maintenance budget by 40%. Managment of aging risks and life-extension demands up to +15 years beyond design life. Updates in CAPEX plans by 90%."

#311 Monitoring of structural integrity of offshore structures in cold regions

Arpit Dev, OMCI Rig Technical and support services

"It has been well established that concrete structures are the most reliable, efficient and cost effective solution for drilling for oil or gas in the colder regions. To make the structure as a cost effective one requires enhancement in its operational life.There are not many proposals or models for structural integrity management for colder regions drilling as the fields are new and most are still some way before full-scale operations start. In this paper we shall be looking into various means and new methodologies to track/monitor ice pack advances and creating models for inspection-eering and studying/analysing structural integrity of these structures."

#320 Dead Leg Inspection Management Systems

Eric Onya, SNEPCo

"Deadlegs by definition, present an unpredictable failure mode to the Asset Integrity and Inspection Engineers because of their peculiar flow regimes, thereby making them of Interest for a more focused inspection program, most especially for hazardous services. This presentation aims at developing a detailed management process for deadlegs in the Oil and Energy Industry, beginning with its identification, Risk assessment, Workscope and Work Pack Generation, Identification of suitable NDE technique(s), Inspection Execution, Review of Inspection results in conjunction with Corrosion Engineers, and planning of subsequent inspection intervals. It is expected that a full implementation of the recommendations of this management process will bring about an overall reduction in recorded incidents of Loss of Primary Containment (LOPC) in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Industries."

#341 Verification and Validation of Standard Hammer Union Designs for API Subcommittee 8, Task Group 5

Daniel Ayewah, Stress Engineering Services

"Hammer unions have been in widespread use for operations throughout the oil and gas industry without standardization. This raised some concern in the industry due to the safety implications of components with different ratings and tolerances resulting in an assembly with compromised strength. Task Group 5 (TG5) of API Subcommittee 8 is tasked with developing standards for safe hammer union manufacture and operation. Their new standard in progress, will address the issue of hammer union standardization. In this presentation, results of analysis and testing performed as part of the development process for the new designs are presented. The analyses consist initially of performing API 6A design checks, then progresses to more advanced finite element analysis, and finally, testing on a limited set of designs."

#350 Unexpected SCC failures on high pressure 316SS offshore block valves.

Riza Khan, In-Corr-Tech Ltd.

"Medium and High pressure block valve fittings are common to all natural gas production platforms. Unexpected numerous failures were observed on 15 out of 242 valves across eighteen well flow lines located on an offshore platform. The 3/4"" 20,000 psi rated block valves were installed in 2008 and in sweet gas service. Investigations revealed that the 316 SS fittings were particularly susceptible to external ClSCC resulting in leakage and shutting in of numerous wells. Metallurgical analyses confirmed the valves were not solution annealed, but supplied in the strain hardened condition. Cracks were extensive, transgranular and originated from the internal threads. Recommendations were implemented and a NDE scheme was prescribed for all the other assets. The findings 1 year onwards and the lessons learnt are discussed."

#368 New Advances in Contact Point Corrosion Technology

Brian Beresford, VIR Inspection LLC

This presentation discusses independent laboratory and field validations of VIR wall loss and crack detection and assessment technology for piping between ½” and 20 inches in diameter, corrosion beneath pipe supports, pressure vessels and atmospheric storage tanks. The advantages and limitations of external VIR technology will be shared from blind technology trials from four Offshore and Onshore Owner-Operator companies including NDE validations of minimum remaining wall thickness estimations at various measurement point spacing. An ongoing field trial of VIR permanently installed sensors will also be discussed.

#415 T5 Array Eddy Current Probe

David Brown, VM Products

This presentation discusses independent field validations of our T5 Array eddy current probe in various types of heat exchanger tubing. The T5 consists of a series of coils arrayed for 100% circumferential coverage and attached together to operate from a single differential bridge channel on a common Eddy Current instrument. The array is optimized for detection of axial and circumferential cracking while minimizing signals from tube supports, tube sheets, lands, fins and internal enhancements. These coils do not provide optimal detection or sizing for volumetric flaws, and are usually paired with a conventional differential bobbin coil set as a supplement. Operation of the probe will be described and the advantages and limitations of the probe technology as shown in a variety of field applications.

#417 Erosion and Sand Management in the Unconventional Business

Juan Gonzalez, Shell Upstream Americas Unconventionals

The risk of LOPC’s related to sand/erosion has become an important work item for everyone in the Shale Business since it poses a large HSEE risk, and economic impact. This presentation captures experiences, as well as industry standards; providing best practices for erosion control and mitigation of wells and facilities in shale gas/oil service supporting hydraulically fractured wells. Erosion control methods are continually evolving to remove conservatism and extend the operating boundaries for producing wells in both cleanup flowback operations and to permanent facilities; it is necessary to define proper risk assessment, design parameters, operational control and erosion monitoring to mitigate erosion due to frac sand, and high velocities/jetting. It includes recommendations for: Facility Design, Well Integrity, and Producing Operations & Surveillance are presented.

#422 Implementing Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Tool to Determine Biofilm Formation on the Carbon Steel Surfaces

Raicelina Ramos, Nalco Champion, An Ecolab Company

In the Oil & Gas Industry, MIC is a major problem. The CS pipeline used to transport crude and gas are corroding due to the presence of the bacteria. Free floating bacteria often attach to the metal surface to form biofilms. The by-products that biofilm produce is highly corrosive. It is often very difficult to identify and quantify sessile bacteria. Routine test methods, like serial dilution bottles, or samples collected from pig returns are used to quantify sessile populations. These techniques are slow to provide results (2 weeks or more). The intention of this study is to use more rapid methods based on electrochemistry (EIS and cyclic polarization) to evaluate the growth of the biofilm on the surface of CS coupons.

#423 Process Safety Approach to Assess Pipeline Integrity Barriers

Adriana Paiva, Shell Projects and Engineering.

Pipeline asset integrity is assured by the active management of hazards and threats, assessing the risks associated with those threats and then identifying measures to effectively eliminate or mitigate the risks to ALARP. In this presentation bow ties are used to assess the health of pipeline integrity barriers linking them to process safety in the operations phase. Input and support from relevant parts and levels of the organization is required and provides the basis for no harm to people and environment, business success, license to operate as well as positive and constructive relations with stakeholders and company reputation.

#424 Evaluation of Compatibility Between SS430, SS304, and SS316L Alloys and Peracetic Acid in Presence of Chlorides

Yolanda De-Abreu, Nalco Champion, An Ecolab Company

It was observed that Peracetic acid treatments had a reduced sporicidal efficiency in the presence of chloride and SS420. Electrochemistry experiments were conducted to determine the cause for the decreased efficiency as well as to suggest alternative metallurgies that may be more suitable for a consistent assessment of sporicidal performance UNS30400 (SS304) and UNS31603 (SS316L). The factors that affect the biocidal performance of peracids using electrochemical methods were determined. In addition, critical pitting temperatures for commonly used metallurgies under various conditions were also evaluated.

#427 CRA Metal Cladding with High Velocity Thermal Spray in Upstream Static Equipment

Iain Hall, Integrated Global Solutions

This presentation takes a look at the technology development, use, experience and standard development of High Velocity Thermal Spray (HVTS) technology for CRA protection of static equipment. The use of high alloy metal cladding systems for protection and long-term reliability of internal surfaces is contrasted with thermal spray aluminum (TSA) technology employed for external surface protection. Aspects of the quality management program(vendor) and engineering specification development(client) required to ensure reliable installation of HVTS will be presented. The technology is also compared to traditional weld overlay and organic coating. Some case studies will be presented representing the growing deployment with most oil and gas majors. Areas of caution together with in-service/on-line inspection capabilities for RBI programs will also be discussed.

#428 Gathering System Integrity Evaluation

Christopher Perez, ShellSEPCO

Natural gas and crude oil gathering systems are defined as pipeline systems that transport and control the flow of the natural gas or oil from its origin point at the wellsite to a main storage facility, a processing plant, or a shipping point. It is necessary to evaluate the key factors that can lead the failure of a Gathering System. As staring point, it is essential to know your system, have an accurate inventory with design data for example: design standard, material, diameter, external or internal coating, pipeline profile and location. Also, it is required to know your process: Type of fluid, water content, contaminants, acid gasses concentration, temperature, pressure and flow velocity. Once those parameters are known there 4 key factors that can affect the integrity of your system: 1) Internal Corrosion, 2) External Corrosion, 3) Third party damage and 4) Geo Hazards. Each of these factors need to be evaluated in detail.

#431 Identification of Base Metal Cracking in Stainless Steel Lined High Temperature Reactors

Stanely Botton, Stanley F. Botton NDT Consultants

Many of the Reactors and Fracturing columns have a stainless-steel inner lining and the detection of both cracking in the liner and the base metal is important for the structural integrity of the vessel. Although this can be detected and evaluated using AUT and PAUT methods, the areas to be scanned can be very large and the vessels in question are always insulated and to do the UT scanning would require a complete cool down and removal of all the insulation. This paper discusses the use of Acoustic Emission (AE) to detect while the vessel is in operation and locate the area of concern and if base metal cracking is present.

#29 Tank tales: Storage Tank Failure and Damage Investigations


Tanks are ubiquitous and essential in industrial societies. They store hydrocarbons, industrial goods such as sulfuric acid, agricultural products, and other products including waste. When they fail, the consequences are dire due to the large volumes of products they store, and their potential explosive and toxic nature.  For tanks to perform properly, design & service knowledge, along with a great deal of know-how, are needed. The following cases touch on the shell-to-roof welds, the fabrication of new tanks, corrosion under insulation, repairs once tanks have been in service, and tank floor process side corrosion and cracks. They highlight key items to consider by personnel in charge of tanks or equipment reliability.

#39 Remote detection of stress magnetisation to inspect and map pipelines

Paul Jarram, Speir Hunter Limited

This presentation outlines recent developments in an emerging non intrusive sensing technique developed to detect localised abnormal pipe wall stress by mapping variations in the earth’s magnetic field around pipelines. Corrosion, metallurgical defects and ground movements result in areas of increased localised stress in pressurised pipelines and a direct relationship has been described mathematically relating magnetic field characteristics to the magnitude of stress due to magnetostriction. The method is non invasive and reports localised stress as a percentage of material specified minimum yield strength, its geometric centre, accurate positioning of girth welds and 3 dimensional mapping of the pipeline route including depth of cover all to cm accuracy. The benefits and a series of case studies are described to illustrate the accuracy of its predictions.

#43 Rectifier Selection: “ What’s Right for your Application”

Don Olson, IRT Integrated Rectifier Technologies Inc.

Cathodic Protection Rectifiers are usually the only visible piece of equipment indicating that an impressed current Cathodic Protection system may be in existence somewhere in the area. They can be found in remote isolated areas, farm pastures, facility electrical / control rooms, residential back alleys and even school / playground areas. These CP systems are used in various industries / applications and can be stand alone or part of an overall CP system network. Rectifiers are the controlling factor when supplying Cathodic Protection to structures that can be subject to external corrosion problems. The content of this presentation is to provide a little insight into the design considerations and variations available when choosing the right Cathodic Protection Rectifier for your specific application.

#53 Pipeline and Tank Floor Inspection with Game Changing MEC Technology

Andreas Boenisch, Innospection Ltd

"Corrosion is a constant challenge especially in ageing and insulated pipelines. This presentation focuses on how the next generation MEC (Magnetic Eddy Current) technology is able change the way pipelines can be inspected and fill inspection gaps in the industry. The technique and case studies on MEC application with field experiences shall be presented: Non-piggable Subsea Pipelines Innospection has developed an external fast scanning package based on a tethered MEC solution that is capable of externally accessing and scanning the non-piggable subsea pipelines, subsea flowlines and manifold pipes. CRA-clad / Heavy-walled / Non-metallic lined Pipelines The MEC-Pig Internal Pipeline Tool currently being developed shall be able to inspect through CRA-clad and non-metallic lined pipes with coating that are currently not inspectable by existing techniques."

#58 Successful UT Examination of a Modified Storage Tank Shell-to-Bottom Weld

Juan Carlos Ruiz-Rico, Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.), Inc. (DNV GL)

As part of a 25-year non-intrusive inspection strategy for a newly constructed API 620 ammonia storage tank, the modified shell-to-bottom weld was recommended to be examined using an UT technique. The modification of this corner weld comprised a novel design of a double-sided full penetration fillet weld, specified to exceed the tank minimum design code requirements. This presentation discusses the weld code requirements, the weld modification details, the procedure development for weld examination, as well as the successful application of the examination technique using UT phased-array; including the examination results evaluation, which were supported by FEA calculations. Consideration of the work presented herein could contribute to improved design and quality of storage tank shell-to-bottom fillet welds.

#74 A Proven Methodology for Integrity Assessment of Facilities Piping

Juan Carlos Ruiz-Rico, Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.), Inc. (DNV GL)

Integrity assessment of facilities piping frequently encounters challenges such as complex systems with varying materials and sizes, cased road crossings, thermal-insulated, electrical interference, underground sections with soil-to-air interfaces, and interacting CP systems. The assessment methodology presented combines the principles of API Piping Inspection Code 570 and NACE Direct Assessment (DA) Process for buried pipe. The presentation discusses this risk-based and software-supported methodology, covering the compilation in an inspection program of condition monitoring locations, corrosion rates, remaining life, reassessment interval, and the enhancement of results with finite element analysis (FEA) to perform fitness-for-service (FFS), addressing findings identified with visual inspection and nondestructive examinations (NDE). This methodology has been successfully applied and proved in the industry since 2005.

#79 Improving Safety Through Technology and Innovation

Jason Forte, Insitu

"Embracing new technology significantly de-risks operations and increases productivity. Remote sensing provides reliable and repeatable data sets that can be compared in real time to help determine trends. By integrating these assets into work flow processes, maintenance and resources can be prioritized. Managers realize benefits by combining UAS, cutting-edge sensors, and data analytics into pipeline safety management systems. Present: Safety/security (24/7 site surveillance) Operation efficiency (aerial pipeline survey, right-of-way with automatic change detection) Compliance (water/gas leak detections) Cost-effectiveness (no driving or flying manned aircraft to remote/inaccessible pipeline infrastructure) Future: Remote sensing operations bring situational awareness of infrastructure directly to headquarters/disseminate decisions back to the field in real time. Machine-learning and analytics enable factual decision-making Recurring/mundane maintenance inspections and surveying are conducted autonomously, enhancing site safety.""

#80 Mobile Reporting and Tracking for Improved Pipeline Integrity Management

Rana Ghosh, Intertek

A big challenge in dealing with pipeline integrity is the lack of traceability of pipe sections and correlating inspection and ILI data. Pipelines are built with pipes from different mills in various locations across the globe. Providing pipeline owners the ability to capture and track high quality pipeline data through all phases, including manufacturing, construction and operation is required. Mobile field inspection and reporting management solution increases the overall productivity during the manufacturing and in-service phases by reducing the time to document inspections and streamlining the workflow. By combining traceability and inspection into one task, owners and operators achieve full transparency into the manufacturing process retain a digital record which is vital for assurance and compliance purposes and accessible anywhere in the world.

#128 The Unique Inspection Requirements of Bolted CHIME Tanks

John Cornell, H.I.R. Technical services

For many years API 12B Chime tanks have been inspected using either API 653 or API 12R1. While both of these documents are to be referenced during an inspection of a bolted  tank, they are not complete since they deal mostly with welded or riveted tanks. How to inspect a bolted tank is not an uncommon question and with more and more bolted tanks coming on-line every day, we must provide detailed inspection requirements as to both support our industry and to keep our workers and the environment safe. Industry has taken steps to supply assistance with the inspection of bolted tanks and we aim to cover the latest information available.

#129 The Inspection of Vented, Fiberglass Storage Tanks

John Cornell, H.I.R. Technical Services

"The purpose of this presentation is to provide procedures for conducting periodic preventive maintenance inspections along with the more comprehensive inspections that are required and that must be performed by a Trained Inspector as relating to inspection of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) atmospheric tanks and vessels in corrosive industrial and commercial service after being placed into services or experiencing a change of service. The procedures are intended to: minimize maintenance costs, ensure compliance with environmental and safety requirements, minimize system failures and ensure that proper engineering, construction and maintenance practices are in place."

#133 Using Satellite-Based Hyperspectral Imagery for Pipeline Integrity, Leak-Detection and Compliance

Peter Weaver, Orbital Sidekick

"Technology miniaturization, combined with a persistent cost decrease for data processing, has opened the frontier for deployment of hyperspectral imaging for detailed, objective, analytical inspection and leak detection for pipeline assets. Appealing to compliance and asset integrity personnel, as well as technology mavens and general management alike, this presentation explores how of hyperspectral intelligence enables leak detection and hydrocarbon speciation while meeting DOT pipeline inspection compliance obligations.  The presentation includes examples where pipeline leaks, undetectable by conventional monitoring, have been found using Spectral Intelligence. An imager owned by Orbital Sidekick (OSK) is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS).  This latest development in satellite-based hyperspectral imaging will be shown as an outrageously powerful and cost effective means for data gathering and pipeline stewardship."

#139 NDE Performance Verification for Pipeline Operators

Stuart Saulters, API.

In 2017, a group of pipeline operators came to API for assistance in helping develop a performance verification program for NDE technicians, specifically those involved in pipeline projects and repairs.  While the technologies may be the same, the applications and anomalies looking for can be drastically different.  For this reason, a new effort began to provide verification for NDE technicians performing work on pipelines.  This presentation will detail the work to date.

#148 Seismic Loading of Aboveground Storage Tanks: Design and Fitness-For-Service Considerations

Phillip Prueter, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

Evaluating the behavior of large aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) during an earthquake is complex. Foundation-structure and fluid-structure interaction effects can influence tank behavior and failure modes. Furthermore, foundation settlement and shell distortion can diminish damage tolerance. Local stresses at anchor attachments and shell-to-floor junctions can be difficult to quantify without detailed analysis. Additionally, performing explicit dynamic analysis with liquid sloshing effects can be time consuming, expensive, and impractical. The intent of this presentation is to summarize simplified techniques to evaluate ASTs subject seismic loading and to compare case study results to detailed computational analysis. Additionally, guidance is offered to quantify the risk associated with operating potentially under-designed vintage ASTs. These simplified and advanced evaluation techniques can influence life-cycle management decisions and inspection strategies for ASTs.

#155 The Digital “Pig & Dig”: What? Why? And How?

Paul Muir, Mobideo

Understand what digitalization is and how it can be applied to the Pipeline industry, In this presentation, we will explain what digitalization is and how it can be applied to provide benefits and REAL savings to the pipeline industry. A customer case study will be presented to illustrate a real solution that can be delivered today with immediate benefits related to: Improved adherence to schedule; Improved manageability of evolving scope; Improved resource utilization; Reduced manning levels; Improved quality and safety; Elimination of paper in the field; Automated and accurate reporting; Reduction of lost time between digs; improved data collection for post “pig dig” review; Improved planning capability; Process improvement and standardization across an organization; Increased efficiency and decreased costs

#158 A Practicum on pressure testing - Compilation of best practices

Sheri Baucom, RCP, Inc

"Pressure testing is one of the oldest methods of ensuring integrity of pipelines. Because of this, there exists a massive amount of information on the topic, some of which is outdated, misunderstood, inconsistent with other information sources and in some cases incorrect. This presentation will be based on a guidance document that seeks to: rectify the issues stated above by providing a guide to pressure testing best practices drawing the distinction between Code requirements and industry standard, provide resolution and clarity where industry documents conflict, and be utilized as a tool operators can utilize to review and update their internal procedures. It will draw from already-available resources, specifically API 1110, as well as internal and external subject-matter-experts."

#169 Mechanical Integrity Evaluation for Gas Pipelines Capacity Augmentation

Anil Kumar Bhat, Vedanta Limited Cairn Oil & Gas

"This paper summarizes the case study to analyze gas pipeline velocity limits constrained by the API RP 14E erosional limit criterion. While API erosional velocity is widely used in the oil and gas industry, it does not consider factors such as changes in pipe geometry, solids production and liquid content in the gas stream which leads to over-simplification of the limits. Pipelines can be operated at higher rates taking into account all these factors. This paper present advanced approach adopted for risk assessment required for capacity augmentation of existing gas pipeline, without compromising safety of the pipeline."

#173 Capturing Best Practices for Third Party Inspections of Facilities Construction

Andy Duncan, Enbridge

The North American pipeline industry has significant challenges in a time of economic uncertainty in energy prices as well the potential for loss of valuable experience due to shifting workforce demographics. The INGAA and CEPA Foundations have a number of initiatives underway to capture and share best practices; in particular, there is emphasis on improving quality during the construction of pipelines and facilities. The initiative described in this paper will compile a body of knowledge and capture best practices as they relate to third party inspection during the construction process for facilities.  This work is an extension of the “Practical Guide to Pipeline Construction Inspection” which was released by the two Foundations in 2016 and has become integral to the API 1169 Inspector Certification program.

#177 The Next Generation CP for Double Bottom Tanks has Arrived

Louis Koszewski, US Tank Protectors, Inc.

A new and innovative approach allows for the electrical isolation of the old tank bottom and dead shell and old tank bottom during the re-bottoming process, or on existing double bottom tanks.  No longer will there be concerns over consumed CP systems between the tank bottoms, as CP current from external CP systems can now pass right through the old tank bottom to get to the new tank bottom.  A conductive type liner can now be used as release prevention, while allowing CP current to pass through to the new tank bottom.  Where an "El Segundo"  is used, this new approach can be utilized to allow for extended API 653 internal inspection intervals by allowing cathodic protection to the "El Segundo" tank.

#178 Use of Corrosion Coupons and ER Probes for AST's

Louis Koszewski, US Tank Protectors, Inc.

The use of corrosion coupons and ER Probes has been used successfully in the pipeline industry for many years.  The use of coupons and ER probes under above ground storage tanks has some significant challenges for effective use to be achieved.  Long term studies have been performed showing that the coupons and ER probe elements used under above ground storage tanks may not be representative of the actual corrosion occurring on the tank bottom.  Tank bottom flexing during the filling and emptying of product creates different corrosion mechanisms on the tank bottoms that may not affect the coupons or ER probe elements.

#205 Guided Waves for Structural Health Monitoring of Pipeline

Sang Kim, Guided Wave Analysis LLC

Permanently installed monitoring sensor (PIMS) using guided waves has been developed and installed for structural health monitoring of pipeline. Monitoring of structure can be done with 3 different methods ---1) Inspecting pipeline at the same location marked, 2) Permanently installing a magnetostrictive strip on structure and inspecting it with monitoring probe, and 3) Acquiring data with permanently installed monitoring sensor (PIMS). The 3 monitoring methods using magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) was performed and their results are compared for guided wave monitoring of structure. This presentation is designed for API inspectors, maintenance management personnel, and facility operators.

#207 DNA Testing, What is it and how can it help?

Tom Pickthall, EnhanceCo INC

Advanced microbiological testing protocols are increasingly being used to identify and correct corrosion issues for energy, storage and commercial applications.  A discussion of what DNA testing methods are available and how the results can be useful in correcting corrosion related problems will be discussed.  A forecast of advances in both the test methods, and predictive analysis based on "Big Data" used in the future will be examined based on the authors experiences.

#210 Corrosion Under Insulation In Pipelines. A Case Study.

Bernardo Cuervo, G2 Integrated Solutions

Thermal insulation over coating is effective, most of the time, but corrosion under insulation (CUI) may occur and brings a threat. In this presentation, a case study will be presented that addresses a pipeline that is subjected to CUI. We will review important considerations, like corrosion rate, temperature, and water sources. Finally, the selection of the proper ILI technology, fitness for service assessment, remaining life calculation and reassessment interval are presented. It is important to notice that managing the integrity of a pipeline is not really about what you found and responded to using ILI results. The true integrity of the pipe is based on how confident you were about the features that remain in the pipe that you decided not to respond to.

#265 In-line screening of small diameter pipelines using free-floating smart sensors

John van Pol, Ingu Solutions Inc.

"Advances in micro-electronics and machine learning open the door to a new method of in-line pipe inspection: small free-floating smart sensors moving in the flow, capturing critical data and enabling operators to optimize pipeline performance, detect anomalies, and flag changes in pipeline condition. The free-floating nature and low costs of these sensors enable frequent screening over the full length of the pipeline/pipeline segment under operational conditions. This presentation will show the results of the screening of 20+ small diameter (2 to 8 inch) metallic and composite pipelines under operational conditions using an economically accessible solution that is commercially available today. The sensors are equipped with an IMU and magnetometer, a combined pressure and temperature sensor, and an advanced system for acoustic leak detection."

#271 Reverse Engineering for OSHA Compliance when Design Documentation is Missing

Ryan Jones, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires owner-users to maintain essential documentation authenticating adequate design and maintenance of pressure vessels and storage tanks. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to find equipment operating with minimal or no documentation. This has become even more common in recent years with the re-purposing of assets for use in new midstream facilities.  Suitability-for-Service (SFS) is the process of performing inspection and engineering to obtain OSHA compliance for fixed equipment lacking documentation. This presentation will outline the general SFS process and provide a number of case study examples of application in industry.

#310 Suitability for Service: Undocumented Pressure Vessels,and State Specials

Daniel Schardine, Applied Technical Services, Inc.

It is not uncommon for owner/users to encounter undocumented pressure vessels in their mechanical integrity inventory.  Undocumented pressure vessels are also bought and sold in the used market.  The significance, potential risk , and potential value of this subset of equipment is often poorly understood.  This presentation discusses options to ensure the suitability for service and jurisdictional compliance of these vessels.  Topics to include: definition and identification of undocumented vessels and state specials, development of inspection plans/protocols, inspection and examination procedures, engineering evaluation and fitness for service assessment, repair and alteration considerations, and typical state special requirements.

#319 Improvements in crack depth sizing and benefits for integrity management

Ryan Sikes, NDT Global LLC

"Data collected from In-Line Inspection tools is often the foundation of Integrity Management Plans (IMP) and determines the response and mitigation efforts required. As the foundation, the IMP is only as accurate as the data used, considering the accuracy of the ILI results will influence the pipeline operation, the tool tolerances and uncertainties need to be taken into consideration. Nevertheless, for deeper crack features, >4 mm, a degree of uncertainty remains in regards to depth sizing. Deep features represent a higher risk; therefore, it is critical to reduce the uncertainty for deep features. The latest improvement for crack depth sizing, Enhanced Sizing, removes the uncertainty for deeper features; as this methodology is capable to size cracks for the entire WT range."

#324 Effect of Pipeline Deposits on MFL Sizing Accuracy of Pinholes

Joel Falk, Desjardins Integrity Ltd.

"A frequent issue with natural gas pipelines is the presence of debris, often black powder, which can potentially affect the sizing accuracy of MFL tools in two ways. First, any type of deposits can cause liftoff of the sensor heads. Secondly, iron oxides (particularly magnetite) located in a metal-loss anomaly can affect the magnetic signal of the anomaly. In addition, it is possible that ferromagnetic deposits could build up on the exterior of the pipeline under the coating, and may also affect MFL readings. If any of these situations resulted in a lower-amplitude MFL signal, the result would be an under-sizing of the anomaly. An investigation into the potential effects of pipeline debris on pinholes was performed, using both theoretical and experimental data."

#330 Installed Sensors & Cloud Software for Continuous Monitoring and Analytics

Tara Merry, Baker Hughes, a GE Company

"Corrosion and erosion cost industries billions of dollars every year in lost production, unplanned downtime, equipment failure, and unplanned maintenance repair costs.  According to the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), the cost of corrosion is~7& of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).  The global cost of corrosion is $2.5 trillion dollars, and represents ~6% of global GDP.  Both and NASA studies estimate that companies can save between 15% to 35% of annual corrosion-related costs through optimum corrosion management practices. This presentation will explain the value of deploying continuous, wireless corrosion monitoring to mitigate or manage the effects of corrosion.  In addition, it will demonstrate how implementing installed inspection sensors can decrease inspection costs, improve asset performance, and optimize process/operations."

#333 Managing Corrosion in Slug Catchers

Mandar Kulkarni, Stress Engineering Services, Inc.

"Slug catchers are employed to accommodate liquid slugs at the exit of gas pipelines with mixed phase flow. These sometimes suffer from internal corrosion due to a variety of mechanisms. Depending on the severity and extent of corrosion, the repair, which could be weld build-up or composite reinforcement, can become expensive. A fitness for service assessment of such a slug catcher is presented. Analysis was initially performed to classify corrosion defects based on severity by performing hand calculations per API 579-1/ ASME FFS-1 Part 5. This was followed by a more detailed Pipe Stress and FEA analysis of select components. For composite repairs, FEA analysis aids with the design of an optimal custom reinforcement of each corroded section by looking individually at each specific feature."

#345 Pipeline Dent Integrity Management Guide Development - API RP1183

Mark Piazza, Colonial Pipeline Company

Industry research and development has defined techniques to characterize, assess and remediate dent features. This information is incorporated in a recommended practice (API RP 1183) for dent management and thus focus inspection and maintenance activities making them more effective. In the long term, this research could be incorporated by reference in CFR 49 Parts 192 and 195, as the current criteria for dent/deformation response and repair is too conservative, requiring non-injurious dents to be excavated and repaired, which shifts resources unnecessarily from those dents that really have the potential to fatigue and leak.

#347 Engineering Analysis of Backfilling Practices for Pipeline Maintenance Activities

Aaron Dinovtizer, BMT Fleet Technology

Integrity management programs include inspection and assessment processes that lead to remedial action decisions. Remediation can include excavation of the pipeline to remove, recoat, reinforce or contain identified damage or degradation features. Existing Industry standards and recommended practice do not provide detailed guidance on excavation and backfilling practice. Recent incidents and research related to unsupported spans buckling/wrinkling resulting from post backfilling bedding material consolidation/compaction have been used to developed useful guidelines related to safe excavation and backfilling procedures considering pipe geometry, grade, product and internal pressure.

#348 Full-Scale Testing to Develop a Pipeline Leak Rate Estimation Tool

Sanjay Tiku, BMT Canada Ltd.

Cracks in pipeline steels represent a primary integrity threat being addressed in asset integrity management programs. Pressure cycle induced fatigue cracking is a significant concern for liquid pipeline operators. The potential exists for the fatigue process to result in cracks propagating completely through the pipe wall and releasing product. Tools for estimate the leakage rate and/or total release volume are important in evaluating crack consequence, operational responses when incidents occur, and remedial action strategies and timelines. Leakage rates through pipeline fatigue cracks have been experimentally measured, demonstrating that measurable leakage does not occur at low pipe internal pressures and increases in a nonlinear trend with pressure. The experimental data are being applied to theoretical engineering models to predict leak rates and estimate release volumes.

#349 Improved Methods for Estimating Fatigue Life of ERW Pipelines

Aaron Dinovitzer, BMT Canada Ltd

The fatigue of axial crack features present in ERW weld seams and in the pipe body can be a significant threat to pipeline systems. The material and full scale testing research described in this paper has developed and demonstrated fatigue crack growth rate material resistance and some stress intensity factor formulations representing the fatigue driving force that improve fatigue life estimates. The recommended treatment can be adopted in API 579 to reduce conservatism of defect fatigue assessment and thus focuses integrity management and remedial action activities and budgets on features that pose the greatest threat to pipeline integrity.

#352 Use of Drones to Inspect Aerial Pipeline Crossings

David Hunter, Pond & Company

Pipeline Aerial Crossings remain a change for access.  Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)offer an opportunity to perform close up visual inspection without putting personnel at risk.  From a corporation's Health, Safety & Environmental Policy (HSE), UAVs should be a part of every company's inspection plan, from a cost, safety and quality of inspection standpoint.  This presentation will discuss one case history regarding performing an aerial inspection to me regulatory requirements, as well as providing superior inspection information to other methods

#355 Vendor Compliance in Purchasing Pipe: Understanding Fusion Bonded Epoxy

David Hunter, Pond & Company

"There are many types of appropriate coating systems, such as two-component liquid epoxies and urethanes, but single- or two-layer fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) is most often used for buried steel pipelines in the U.S. The durability of this coating type for this environment has been well proven. An advantage of using FBE over liquid applications is that the materials can be applied in a highly controlled environment at fairly high speed which tends to drive down overall cost of application. This article discusses the fundamental steps of FBE application, some advantages and disadvantages, and some basic inspection criteria for a quality application."

#356 Success Factors in Tank Repairs

Abidul Islam, ADNOC

"Storage Tank repairs are expensive, exhaustive and often HSE intensive exercise. Three tanks repair scenarios, wherein the rapiers actually might jeopardize integrity are weld buildup of Tank Bottom Plates, Weld buildup of Shells in an internal floating roof tank and repairs close to the critical zone of a tank. The weld buildup actually damages the bottom plate soil side coating, thereby compromising the available protection. Similarly, weld buildups on the shell often leaves a notch, creating a likely coating failure locations in a internally lined ATF tank, as the wiper seals of the internal roof rubs against it. The repairs in very close to the shell to annular zone often leaves defects under the shell plate zone, leaving a vulnerability for the future."

#362 Understanding Crack ILI Performance Using In-the-Ditch NDE

Steven Bott, Enbridge, Liquids Pipelines

Successful implementation of crack ILI to manage crack threats on transmission pipelines can be affected by many factors that must be considered when verifying inspection performance. For example, differences in reporting thresholds and capabilities between crack ILI and NDE platforms or poor quality NDE can lead to incomplete or inaccurate understanding of tool performance. This presentation will leverage extensive Enbridge crack ILI and field NDE results to demonstrate how robust inspection and program performance measurement is important to having effective and efficient crack management programs. In addition, links between demonstrated tool performance and crack management best practices as discussed in API 1176 will be discussed using both Enbridge results as well as results from the PRCI project NDE-4E.

#370 Advances in PIpeline Leak Detection

Ronnie Little, SPL Leak Detection

A pipeline integrity monitoring system cannot rely on a single parameter such as sight or smell to detect a problem. The system must be reliable (no false alarms) and capable of quickly recognizing and responding to problems. The SPL1000, is designed to monitor the status of a pipeline in real-­‐time. It will detect and send an alarm to inform the operator of abnormal events, such as leak, natural disaster, and third-­‐party damage and pinpoint its location. The SPL1000 scans key parameters such as pressure and temperature hundreds on times per second. This results in fast and reliable leak detection and allows the pipeline operator to quickly react to prevent, or minimize, the environmental impact and property damage.

#384 Deformation Program Performance Evaluation

Syed Haider, Enbridge liquids Pipelines

Developing a practicable methodology to demonstrate that the deformation program is able to identify key threats effectively and efficiently is imperative to having a successful pipeline integrity management program. While crack and metal loss effectiveness and efficiency can be tested by comparing reported depths and estimated burst pressure, this is not straight forward for deformation and deformation with different types of stress concentrators. Definitions of effectiveness and efficiency that Enbridge has used for the deformation program reviews will be discussed. The effectiveness of different types of regulatory and Enbridge criteria will be shared to demonstrate the requirement for engineering critical assessment as part of effective and efficient deformation management program.

#399 Approaching API 653 Tank Internal Inspections as Business Opportunities

Lennar Perez, CITGO Petroleum Corporation

Many owner/operators and inspection companies approach mandatory API 653 internal inspections with a onetime cost perspective in mind. Not looking at long term opportunities to increase storage capacity often leaves potential throughput revenue or supply chain cost savings on the table. Opportunities to reduce “tank bottoms” and increase filling capacity on the upper courses for internal and external floating roof tanks are numerous and often overlooked. “Tank bottoms” or “heels” are the normal product levels required to keep flotation on Internal Floating Roofs when the tank is near empty. Flotation helps maintaining vapor emissions to a minimum. Modifications to gain working capacity vary from high costs to really inexpensive repairs. High level alarm calculations are critical. Different internal floating roof vendors offer different flotation line, pontoons, support brackets, and seal profiles. While many look at price to be the determining contract award factor for new floating roofs, low profile roofs can save in the long terms by increasing working capacity.

#404 Lessons Learnt Hard Spots Failures

Nigel Strike, Boardwalk Pipeline Partners, LP

Hard lesson learnt: BW investigated the root cause of a 30” pipeline that ruptured in Jackson MS, in the winter. Impact to the environment. Investigation in to root cause of the issue along with how it happened. Development of a testing procedure on similar pipeline containing the hard spots & cracks to determine critical path for rupture and resolution of the issues found and safety factors considered.

#405 Alternating Current Interference on Pipelines

Anthony Ashiofu, RK&K

High Voltage Power Lines (HVPL) produce an electromagnetic field which can be of great concern to metallic pipelines. Risks to Pipeline integrity and Personnel safety should be investigated whenever there are HVPL’s near metallic pipelines. Coatings on pipelines are usually used to protect pipelines from corrosion due to harsh environments. This presentation discusses the challenges of improved modern pipeline coating technology on the AC mitigation problem. This presentation also provides the approach for threat assessment, modeling and mitigation.

#407 Corrosion Control of Rural Gathering Lines – New API Recommended Practice

Drew Hevle, Linder Morgan

PHMSA has proposed regulations for previously unregulated rural natural gas gathering lines. API convened a committee to develop a recommended practice containing safety standards for the design, construction, testing, corrosion control, operation, and maintenance of onshore gas gathering lines in rural areas. The provisions complement the U.S. DOT's requirements for regulated onshore gas gathering lines in 49 C.F.R. Part 192. DOT established requirements in 2006 final rule and initiated an effort to expand the scope to include certain historically-exempt gas gathering lines in rural areas. This recommended practice aligns with that rulemaking proceeding and is limited to onshore gas gathering lines not presently regulated by DOT. This presentation reviews the corrosion control requirements of the recommended practice, anticipated to be published prior to the conference.

#408 Codes & Standards Review of Electrically Resistive Pipeline Coatings

Bob Buchanan, Seal for Life Industries

Pipeline corrosion protective coatings are electrically resistive to perform as an effective coating. However, resistivity levels vary depending on the coating technology employed and the conditions of service. Electrically resistive coatings, or high dielectric strength coatings, cause some confusion when they must also be compatible with cathodic protection which,  requires the flow of cathodic current. This paper will summarize various national and international codes and standards about coating attributes, performance requirements and application parameters. It will also review test methods which are used to measure performance, including electrical resistivity of coatings, and said attributes of the coatings with respect to how the codes and standards comment on certain performance requirements, independent testing and manufacturer and user sponsored research into coatings and their electrical interaction.

#409 Dead Legs - Prioritization, Remedies and Failures

Jerry Brown,Brown Corrosion Services, Inc.

Dead legs in pipelines present many problems. As dead legs have no-flow characteristics, this can have exacerbated internal corrosion rates. Since dead legs are not usually affected by most corrosion control techniques, many failures, some catastrophic, have occurred. How to identify dead legs and prioritize dealing with the ones identified, is an ongoing problem. This presentation will define dead legs, understanding the risk they pose, a methodology to prioritize and/or eliminate them. Most integrity programs do not address the issue of dead legs. An example will be shown of a failure of a dead leg and the failure analysis to identify the corrosion mechanism that caused the failure as well as the human factors in not being aware, eliminating or inspecting the dead leg.

#410 Interpreting Internal Corrosion Coupon Data – What does it Mean?

Jane Brown, Corrosion Services, Inc.

Internal coupons have been used for more than sixty years to monitor the internal corrosion of a system; test new materials/metallurgy for use; and validate the effectiveness of chemical inhibition. Although they have been used for many years, with mergers/buyouts/acquisitions and new people coming into the industry, it is often difficult to interpret the results from these coupons or understand how valuable the data is. Exporting of LNG, the shale plays, and new pipeline construction make the need for these coupons more important than ever to validate our corrosion control methods. Determining weight loss over a specific time and analyzing deposition/pit depth/corrosion mechanism, can be instrumental in prolonging a system’s life through an operator’s ability to react to system changes in a timely method.

#411 Internal Corrosion Monitoring Methods

Lance Witt, Integrity Measurement and Control

This is a presentation of industry standards for monitoring internal corrosion specific to flowing and static pipelines, separators, and storage tanks. The methods will span from the use of various styles of coupons, to in-situ liquid and particulate collection, to monitoring techniques such as Electrical Resistance, Linear Polarization and Ultrasound. The availability of real-time remote data collection technologies is included. Caution will be emphasized concerning the potential effect of cathodic protection on the monitoring method and resulting data. Pros and cons for each method are laid out specific to each application. The risk for erroneous data due to choice of methodology is noted. Location, location, location …. visual examples will reveal where to install each type of monitoring technology for optimal results. Samples of collected data will be analyzed to determine the likely causes of corrosion. The monitoring techniques and methodology for collecting quality data will form the basis of the second presentation on mitigation methods.

#412 Methods for Mitigating Internal Corrosion

Lance Witt, Integrity Measurement & Control

This is a presentation on industry standards for mitigating internal corrosion specific to flowing and static pipelines, separators, and storage tanks. The emphasis will be on how to develop a mitigation plan based on data collected from the corrosion monitoring methods. The mitigation methods will include the injection of chemical inhibitors, scavengers and biocides and the use of pigging and cleaning programs. The pros and cons for each method are laid out specific to each application. How is the mitigation method proven affective? Cautions are noted where a chosen method may have risks and lead to poor results. Location, location, location ….visual examples will reveal where and how to apply a chemical mitigation agent for proper dispersion and distribution within the process. Examples will be presented to showcase poor station design as well optimal design.

#413 The Mechanical Aspects of Internal Corrosion Monitoring

Jerry Brown, Brown Corrosion Services, Inc.

Internal corrosion and erosion is a problem with pipelines. Internal metal loss and pitting is ongoing. moving the majority of corrosion failures to the inside of the pipelines. With the improvements in inspection techniques and advanced internal monitoring techniques, the issue remains how do you insert and remove the coupons and probes, collect the samples and perform this work in a safe, efficient, and consistent manner. Dependency of the weight loss coupons and probes to satisfy data for integrity programs, adjustment of the corrosion control techniques in a timely ,manner is essential. This presentation shows the actual mechanical equipment in a variety of production, gathering, and pipeline facilities illustrating different methodologies of corrosion monitoring, corrosion control monitoring and sampling.

#433 Lining for Fuel Grade Ethanol: Why Has it Been So Challenging?

David Cushman, West Virginia Paint

Ten years later we are finally observing the results of our experiment in internal coating for fuel grade ethanol. And the results are..... mixed. Some successes, some failures.. but as in any good lab experiment-why? This discourse will explore the challenges that the industry has faced with its lining systems. It will explore historical coating systems for solvents, API 652 and its position, stress corrosion cracking issues, what exactly is fuel grade ethanol, changes in tank lining technology resulting from VOC regulations and many more variables that have made this read more and more like a good detective story. We will explore some common denominators of the successes and help specifiers in trying to make sense of the data, and make the best recommendations today based on past successes and failures.

#17 Case Study: Sigma-Phase Embrittlement of a Fired Heater’s Convection Coils

Benjamin Bryant, Celanese Corporation

Celanese Narrows Virginia site has four process gas-fired heaters. The 317SS convection section coils operate under vacuum with a fire box temperature of 1500°F. Minor repairs limited to the inlet and outlet piping of the convection section coils have been performed over the life of the unit. After exceeding the design life by 80k hours, a sample piece was removed for analysis. Consequent repairs were unsuccessful due to severe sigma-phase embrittlement. Solution annealing performed reduced the sigma-phase and improved weldability however the welds still did not pass radiography due to cracking. Analysis of the sample through mechanical testing was unsuccessful due to severe embrittlement. This case study presents the techniques used to improve the coil’s weldability and an analysis of the degradation mechanisms.

#19 Elimination of Backing Gas in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds

Charles Patrick, ALS Maverick Testing Laboratories, Inc.

Open root welding of austenitic stainless steel with gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW) is typically performed using an inert backing gas for purging, such as argon, to protect the root pass from atmospheric contamination and oxidation. In many cases, using a backing gas for purging is impractical due to system design, access limitations, personnel safety, schedule and various economic factors.  After extensive application research, development and testing the need for backing gas has been eliminated for open root welding of austenitic stainless steel using a semiautomatic GTAW hot wire welding system technically known as High Deposition Metal Transfer Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding (HDMTGTAW), combined with stainless steel flux cored wire (AWS/ASME A/SFA-5.22 and A/SFA-5.22M) and argon shielding that is capable of producing quality welds with high integrity.

#21 ASME Section IX Welding - “Process, Procedure and Performance“

James F. Harris, Marathon Petroleum Corporation

ASME Section IX welding procedure specifications and welder performance qualifications are prepared and implemented to meet the requirements of various Construction Codes. Common mistakes identified during review of these documents include the omission and/or misapplication of ASME Section IX’s procedure and/or performance “variables”. Understanding these procedure and performance “variables” and how they relate to a specific welding process is crucial to successful completion of production welds. This presentation will provide an experienced driven discussion of ASME Section IX procedure and performance “variables” and their application. Examples of ASME Section IX nonconformance encountered during documentation reviews will be provide "lessons learned" to enhance understanding. Additionally, Construction Code requirements often overlooked by individuals new to ASME Section IX procedure and performance documentation development will be discussed.

#22 Recent NDE Developments and FFS status from E2G HTHA JIP

Michael Nugent, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

Significant strides in the NDE and FFS evaluation of HTHA in refining and petrochemical industry have been developed in the E2G HTHA JIP over the past six years through the efforts of Owner/User Sponsors. After major technology refinements in NDE or FFS or modeling have been vetted through this program, the results have been shared with industry groups. Laboratory testing has further defining the onset and propagation of HTHA as a function of time, stress, temperature, and hydrogen partial pressure.  In addition, the most recent updates in API 941 and API 579 Part 15 (for HTHA)  will be discussed along with the status of a HTHA NDE specific Training program.  The highlights of an international workshop on HTHA NDE and FFS will also be presented.

#25 Process Heater Tube Temperature Monitoring: Best Practices

Frank Liu, Code Inspection IR Technologies

"The presentation focuses on monitoring process heater tube temperatures in manufacturing plants. Brief discussion on business value drivers for deploying an effective monitoring program for an entire manufacturing site will be given. Key program elements including fix-position instrumentation (tube skin thermocouples) and remote IR scanning technology will be outlined. Pros & cons of different technology/tools will be mentioned along with real life test results from the field. Before closing, the speaker will invite open discussions/idea exchanges of industry-accepted practices on heater asset reliability. Frank Liu retired in 2010 after completing 30 years of services in Shell Oil Company. Frank’s last assignment in Shell was their global leader for projects involving IR monitoring & performance optimization encompassing both technology and field implementations."

#31 Advanced Complementary HTHA Inspection and New API 941 NDE Guidance

Joseph W Krynicki, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company

Traditional HTHA inspection techniques based on currently published 941 guidance are undergoing significant changes. Contemporary guidance is based on established technologies (e.g., TOFD) with application specific modifications and interpretation approaches, and, includes new techniques (e.g., TFM/FMC PAUT). The proposed 941 guidance is more comprehensive compared to the current document and has undergone significant modifications including, new techniques, inspection effectiveness and general application guidance. This paper will review these proposed changes to API 941 and show data from HTHA damaged material demonstrating the value of multiple and complementary techniques.

#42 Solving the Mysteries of Critical Check Valves

Chad Patschke, Ethos Mechanical Integrity Solutions, LLC

"This presentation addresses the mysteries around critical check valve (CCV) inspection programs. It addresses the Why, What, Where, Who, How, and When associated with identifying CCVs and developing a CCV inspection program. The presentation discusses the following: Reasons why most companies do not have a CCV inspection program in place yet Defining CCVs and providing examples of components of different types of check valves Previous industry incidents and failure data related to check valves General criteria for identifying CCVs and where CCVs are commonly found in refineries Inspection tasks/practices associated with CCVs Roles and responsibilities associated with CCV MI programs (e.g., inspector, valve shops, operations, NDE techs) Typical intervals for CCV inspection/testing tasks"

#55 Development of a Wall-Sticking Drone for Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Testing

Rami Mattar, Amerapex

Refineries require frequent inspection, maintenance, and safe work practices; however, accessing structures is getting harder due to their enormous height and size.Usually Man-lift vehicles, scaffolds, and rope-access are used to reach high elevation areas which is risky, costly, and time consuming. One feasible solution is contact-based drone. In addition to cameras, the drone is equipped with ultrasonic probe surrounded by electromagnetic elements to assist “sticking” the probe on the surface of the structure under examination and conduct instant thickness and corrosion testing. High elevation work could be minimized or in some cases be eliminated. Helps narrow the focus to specific areas where once only accessible through man-lift vehicles, scaffolding or rope access, now they can be accessed at relatively fraction of the time and cost.

#61 Corrosion under Insulation of Chemical Plant Pressure Vessels

Andres Salazar, Worleyparsons

Risk exposure from Corrosion Under Insulation failures is the most significant Mechanical Integrity issue for the Chemical Industry. Even Corrosion Under Insulation in carbon steel pressure vessel is one of the degradation phenomena that have become a serious problem in recent years especially in chemical plants that have been operating for 25 + years. As per stated in API 510, inspection for Corrosion Under Insulation shall be considered for externally insulated vessels and those that are in intermittent service or operate at temperatures between 10 °F and 350 °F  for carbon steel. This document provides our experience in assessing the mechanical integrity of the Feed pressure vessel located at a Chemical Plant in Pasadena, TX.

#68 Managing Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion and IOW Implementation

Michael Cayard, Flint Hills Resources LC

Hydroprocessing and hydrocracking units utilize a combination of pressure, heat, catalyst and hydrogen to remove undesired sulfur and nitrogen from the feedstocks. The corrosiveness of ammonium bisulfide solutions which form downstream of the reactors depends on a wide range of variables including, NH4HS concentration, H2S partial pressure, temperature and shear stress acting on the pipe wall, to name a few. This paper is intended to educate engineers and inspectors on the variables affecting the corrosivity and provide one users approach to managing this corrosion mechanism. Topics covered include: process assumptions used to provide data inputs into an NH4HS corrosion model, use of the predicted data to prioritize on-stream inspection, use of infrared scanning to monitor operational health, and selection of integrity operating windows.

#75 Operating Small Pipe

Josh Yoakam, HollyFrontier

A series of thoughts to encourage discussion about issues affecting the owners of small bore pipe. Simply reviewing the definition is not sufficient to promote better understanding, exploring different ideas may shed light on old problems and find opportunities for integrity improvements.

#78 API RP 932-B: Hydroprocessing Unit REAC Systems, 3rd Edition Update

Jim Edmondson, Becht Engineering Co., Inc.

API RP 932-B is being updated to the 3rd edition.  The task group has improved the document in many ways, including the following three areas.  The inspection section has been updated to include full coverage techniques, thermography, and damage mode considerations.  Input was solicited from the hydroprocessing engineering community to reach consensus on IOWs for reactor effluent air cooler systems and improve the addendum on saltpoint calculations.  The current state of knowledge on cracking of duplex stainless steel in reactor effluent service is now included.  Other changes will also be highlighted during the presentation.

#88 Saudi Aramco Yanbu’ NGL AIMS Success Story

Yasser Almowalad, Saudi Aramco

Since the time of launching the Asset Integrity Management System (AIMS) in 2015 by Saudi Aramco (SA)/Consulting Services Department, SA/Yanbu’ NGL Fractionation Department (YNGLFD) adopted model practices led to achieving 100% AIMS implementation during 2017. As a result, YNGLFD was highlighted within SA as a pioneering facility. This paper outlines YNGLFD efforts toward implementing AIMS, which is a system comprising people, work processes, practices, and tools to maintain and assure asset integrity. YNGLFD success with AIMS implementation is derived from a long-lasting quest for excellence that can be evidenced in a number of asset integrity programs. This paper will share knowledge and commendable practices, and used as a resource for facilities to reduce the risk of major incidents, and pursue excellence in asset integrity.

#93 Field Practice of Magnetic Flux Leakage Methodology- Some Pitfalls

Roderic Stanley, NDE Information Consultants

"Magnetic Flux leakage is a widely used nondestructive technology for oil country tubular goods and storage tanks. The general principle is well known. Laboratory testing on ideal material, used to standardize MFL systems, such as perfectly flat plates with accurately drilled pits or EDM notches, often does not give a true picture of the field condition. We point out problems with this approach under field conditions. Flat plates develop variable wall thicknesses that affect flaw signals.  Top and bottom-side flaws on flat plates have different signals caused by their location, the presence of nearby flaws, and surface undulations.  These cause unknown changes in lift-off and affect signal amplitude and other signal properties, making amplitude comparison a risky business, and requiring a second signal prove-up."

#96 When is Hydrogen Bakeout necessary?

Marc McConnell, Pro-Surve Technical Services

"A bake-out is used to drive hydrogen out of the steel, as trapped hydrogen can cause cracking in the weld. Typically the need to perform a hydrogen bake out happens during a maintenance turnaround, so the need for the bake out is frequently challenged in an effort to try and save time (cost). The time and temperature needed to bake out the hydrogen to a level for a successful weld repair is controversial due to many fact based reasons, and when discussing with metallurgists or corrosion engineers, you will find degrees of opinion ranging from none to some. There are rules-of-thumb and/or “in-house” recommendations for weld inspection delays between 16 to 48 hours in various standards, but there is no firm basis for times."

#97 Heat Treating - A Journey Through Time and Temperature

Andrew Bohm, Fulcrum Reliability

PWHT - Civilization as we know it today would not have been made possible had man not learned how to utilize iron and steel to the high degree of which it is employed today. Steel is unique and useful because it can be treated so that it is extremely hard, springy, or relatively soft. Likewise, the lack of treatment can result in the same altered conditions that under different circumstances may be much less desirable.  This presentation will focus on the science of how heat treatment works, how heat treatment was developed, and how heat treatment has progressed through the ages to modern time.  We will also discuss heat treatment "challenges / failures".

#99 The Value of a Baseline Inspection: Fired Heater Coils

Tim Haugen, Quest Integrity

"Baseline inspections of new heater coils are often overlooked during new construction and replacement of existing coils. Defects can be inadvertently introduced in pipes from the foundry, during coil fabrication and also during delivery and installation. Performing baseline inspections of new coils allows for the earliest possible identification of true wall and geometrical conditions, which are vital in planning future maintenance and tube life expectancy. This presentation will cover the importance of establishing true pipe wall thicknesses for future corrosion rates, as well as some case studies where nonconformities were found during baseline inspections, which if left undetected, could have resulted in the misclassification of damage mechanisms, inaccurate corrosion rates, remaining life calculations, and premature pipe failures."

#101 Long Range Wireless UT Sensor Adoption: Corrosion Monitoring & Inspection

Steve Strachan, Sensor Networks, Inc.

Advances in low cost/long range wireless UT technology have given refineries an opportunity to augment manual inspection teams with installed wall thickness monitoring sensors. A challenge in deploying such systems is the ability to achieve sensor connectivity at a low cost to the plant infrastructure, allowing a dispersed amount of sensor points to exist across multiple process units. A wireless ultrasonic corrosion monitoring sensor was developed utilizing a long-range, low power, wide area network based on LoRa standard and star topology. Over one mile connectivity is being achieved across a number of refineries. Data is backhauled from the sensor to gateway and pushed to a cloud back end for data trending/analysis. This paper will review the development of this technology and deployment case studies.

#105 Comprehensive Refining Piping CML Optimization Review Process

Jim McVay, Andeavor

"Comprehensive Refining Piping CML Optimization Review Process. This presentation will be a follow-up to the presentation offered at the 2017 Inspection Summit as Andeavor now culminates a comprehensive review exercise for all common refining processes and implements a comprehensive program to optimize piping inspection program based on learnings. Learnings from initial implementation efforts along with developed tools helpful for implementation will be discussed. Useful learnings and special practices as they relate to specific processes and applications will also be discussed in some detail. It is expected that much of the information derived from the piping CML review exercise will be available in the public domain through API, likely some before the Inspection Summit. Access and best use of this public information will be discussed."

#107 Corrosion Studies – Pitfalls and Some Good Practices

Jim McVay, Andeavor

Comprehensive corrosion studies, also known as degradation mechanism reviews, are now relatively common exercises in operating facilities, necessary for sufficiently technically well-grounded and dynamic inspection programs needed in today’s operating environments. While the newly issued API RP 970 (Corrosion Control Documents) provides guidance on the basic elements of corrosion studies, the document has omissions in many areas in which responsible operators need to address. Standardized criteria for consistent determinations of vulnerability (or lack thereof) to environmental cracking mechanisms, required rigor of review and analyses of process data inputs are but a few examples. This presentation will discuss experienced and possible pitfalls of in the execution of Corrosion studies and outline possible controls and practices to optimize the effectiveness of these efforts for their intended applications.

#109 IOW- An Effective Tool to monitor/maintain Integrity of Assets

Abdallah Al Maqbali, ORPIC

"Operating windows philosophy has long been used for process controls and safe operation in chemical plants. However, establishing operating windows from an integrity aspect is more of a recent development. With risk based inspection becoming essential tool to establish inspection plans, one of the outcomes of the RBI study is also an input to the development of IOW. Based on the critical process variables assigned for each damage mechanism, three level integrity limits are set for these process parameters along with consequence, exceedance time and recommended actions. This paper describes the philosophy established within the company to implement IOW along with a KPI based reporting system to deliver to the operator clear set of recommendations that needs to be implemented to maintain asset’s integrity."

#113 Tubular Management Tree

James Cesarini, PE, Pro-Surve Technical Services. LLC

An innovative maintenance team at a Texas City refinery forgoed reinstalling the diaphragm of a high pressure heat exchanger after finding the seal weld cracked. They installed a double bevel pressure seal and modified cover plate and brought up the unit. This modification became the first of dozens of retrofits that eliminate the diaphragm in lieu of the pressure seal. This discussion will cover the comments received from multiple personnel involved with retrofitting their exchangers from diaphragms to pressure seals all over the world.  Successes, challenges, additional modifications utilized, ease of use, and any outstanding concerns will be discussed.

#114 In-Service Flange Raised Face Inspection Utilizing TFM Phased Array

Mark Schramm, Pro-Surve Technical Services

Leak free connections can challenge maintenance organizations as they balance the scale between breaking flange pairs open to inspect their raised-faces versus leaving them intact and risk leaks.  A nondestructive technique that can be utilized while the processes are online is valuable to the planning organization.  A few methods have been used with varying amounts of success. Conventional UT has been moderately successful in evaluating flange raised-faces from between flange bolt holes.  Phased Array Ultrasonics (PAUT) has also shown success but with limited sensitivity. The addition of the Total Focusing Method (TFM) proves to have both the sensitivity and coverage to evaluate a flange raised-face throughout the flange circumference.  This presentation will highlight findings from approximately 1000 flange pair evaluations predominantly in hydrofluoric acid service

#115 Save Time with using an Exchanger Bundle Inspection Decision Tree

James Cesarini, PE, Pro-Surve Technical Services

Many organization's exchanger inspection plan is designating the method and percentage of tubes to test.  Some add the test pattern and number of tubes per pass. A small fraction plan an entire decision tree so there is no lost time waiting on an answer what to perform next. Answers to questions: What cleaning method, the pressure required?  Define clean. How many tubes can be plugged per pass? Tube metallurgy, plug metallurgy? When to raise the percentage of tubes being inspected or when stop inspection? Creating a Tubular Inspection Flow Chart or “Decision Tree” and distributing to inspection personnel can save organizations valuable time.  The real savings of a decision tree can be visualized during a large outage.  Savings can be in the tens of thousands.

#122 Plant and Circuit Wide CCD/IOW Implementation Process

Brian Jack, E2G

API 970/584 (Corrosion Control Documents/Integrity Operating Windows) are becoming a valuable resource in a Refinery Mechanical Integrity Program. The ability to identify Unit Corrosion Loops and document the Damage Mechanisms is critical for RBI. When overlaid with susceptibility to both normal and process upsets conditions, this becomes a benchmark for turnaround planning improvements in plant reliability programs.  This paper will summarize both Plant wide and Fleet wide approach toward this process. One will be an orderly progression for a single Plant conducting RBI on most of the operating units and moving to CCD/IOW as part of a robust Mechanical Integrity program. A second will be an Owner-User implementation of this CCD/IOW process with a focus on a few similar typical refining units at multiple sites.

#124 Case studies demonstrating corrosion concerns (design and material selection)

Vishal Lagad, Lloyd's Register

"For design and materials selection regarding heat exchange equipment in chemical plants, the focus tends to primarily be on the “chemicals” side but often, it is the water (or steam) side that causes corrosion issues in numerous instances, since it is routinely ignored or de-emphasized. This paper presents two cases that demonstrate how inadequate design considerations and non-optimized materials selection can cause severe corrosion and integrity issues. Both of these cases are for a fixed tubesheet type of shell and tube heat exchangers. Some of the key lessons learned: When metallurgy is upgraded, proper design should be considered. Without fully understanding the damage mechanisms, NDE provides limited or even misleading information. Licensors may not always be right in term of materials selection."

#130 IOW's: Why You Need Them & How to Justify Within Your Organization

Phil Garcia, PinnacleART

An effective IOW program can provide less downtime, optimized inspection costs, and a more assured asset lifecycle. Many refining, gas processing, and petrochemical plants have already identified the need to define IOW’s, but are still unsure how to extract the most value from them. In order to achieve the benefits associated with IOWs, they must be implemented and managed appropriately. In this presentation, we will enable you to implement and manage IOWs with confidence through a concise and practical approach.

#135 Dead-legs and Mixing Points; How to Manage

Latifa Alshebli, ORPIC

"A refinery experienced two failures resulting in a loss of primary containment in a dead-leg and a mixing point highlighted two of the most important items in the asset integrity management system, i.e. dead-legs and mixing points management. The dead legs in the RFCC Heavy Gasoline (HGAS) corrosion loop experienced a leak due to ammonium chloride salt deposition and corrosion. A mixing point in the Reformate corrosion loop also experienced a leak due to Ammonium chloride corrosion resulting from water ingress at this location.  A systematic dead-legs and process mixing point management procedures to identify, evaluate the risk and monitor all dead-legs and mix points was developed. I’ll discuss dead-leg and mixing point management procedures using the two as case studies."

#143 Damage mechanisms in old Mn-Mo vessels

David Moore, Becht Engineering

A Hydrotreater hot high-pressure separator and Catalytic Reformer reactors made of SA-302 Gr B Mn-Mo steel were inspected with sensitive PAUT techniques after many years in service. Many crack-like linear indications of various sizes were detected at welds and HAZ, including large indications at nozzle attachment welds. Weld samples were removed from both types of vessels to investigate the indications and help determine damage mechanisms and repair plans. Fitness-for-service was also performed and vessels were returned to service after successful repairs. This presentation will review most probable and credible damage mechanisms related to Mn-Mo steel after prolonged exposure to high temperature H2 charging conditions, including repair challenges and future integrity management strategies.

#145 Phased Array Detection and Metallurgical Analysis of Creep Fatigue Cracking

Terry Haigler, Intertek

Routine inspections coupled with a good condition-monitoring program are a critical part of the maintenance and safety of piping systems. The detection and field evaluations of indications using a nondestructive technique are only part of understanding the significance of the indications in your piping. Intertek AIM will present a case study of a routine inspection that leads to a significant indication and the steps taken to analyze and eliminate the indication. Detailed discussions will be given on the NDE processes used to evaluate the indications including magnetic particle inspections, encoded phased array inspections, hardness values, field replications, and positive material identification results. We will also discuss  boat samples and the metallurgical analysis performed in the laboratory to further evaluate the root cause of the indications.

#149 Evaluating the Damage Tolerance of Coke Drum Support Skirt Designs

Seetha Kummari, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

Evaluating the behavior of coke drums is challenging due to the randomness and uncertainties in typical cyclic loading conditions. Severe fluctuations in temperature and stress during the quench portion of the cycle can lead to distortion, fatigue damage, and cracking. Since the evolution of damage in the drum is a cycle-dependent process, a snapshot of strain or distortion data generally has limited value in quantifying remaining life. Advanced fatigue methods and damage models are usually required to address the permanent irreversible damage and material degradation that is produced throughout multiple cycles. In this presentation, the thermal-mechanical behavior of multiple coke drum support skirt designs, including several forged, welded, and sliding configurations is investigated. This study is a continuation of PVP2017-65807, with new support skirt geometries.

#151 Using Advanced Analysis to Reduce Hydrogen Bakeout Times

Scott Bouse, WJE Associates

"Many companies in the Process Industries know that Hydrogen Bakeout is necessary before welding or grinding on carbon steels in sour service.  However, few companies have a scientific basis for the required bakeout procedure, and instead rely on prior experience or guesswork to establish a bakeout plan.  Even then, most references are intended to ensure a successful full-penetration weld repair, and do not account for actions that only influence the surface of a component. This presentation will cover some of the analytic approaches available to owner-operators, including shortening bakeout times when repair activities are local to one surface, or in areas such as flanges where the thinner nozzle neck serves as a ‘choke point’ preventing hydrogen diffusion from a heavier section."

#156 A105/A106 Metallurgical and Brittle Fracture Considerations

Puneet Saggar, Llyod's Register

"A sudden failure under the action of stresses in carbon steel grades like A105 and A106 is a concern for equipment, fittings and piping produced from these grades. Under normal service conditions, ductility is not a major concern, but during upsets or shutdowns and /or hydro testing, brittle fracture becomes a valid concern. Equipment material selection engineers, inspectors and at times engineering managers can play an important role in mitigating this issue. During design stages, simpler metallurgical and material properties fundamentals can help mitigate the issue. Past the service life, any changes should pass through technical evaluations along with material property and steel melting practice related information during the ordering of these materials including the conditions that may lead to their exposure to colder temperatures."

#157 Case Study of Premature Cracking on Stainless steel Gas Cooler

Roxanna Alvarez, Lloyd's Register Energy Americas

Premature and unexpected circumferential cracking was observed on the steam side of 316 stainless steel tubes used in a Gas Cooler vertical exchanger. Cracking was observed near the top tube-sheet, on one quadrant of the bundles where high temperature corrosion scales were present. This presentation will discuss the metallurgical analysis results along with discussion on the root cause analysis of the failure. The results of the root cause analysis helped identify and detect premature cracking on a similar cooler at the same facility. Using Eddy current inspection at the next opportunity, the root cause theory was confirmed on the similar coolers and it was put back in service with a reduction of down time and prevention of in-service failure.

#160 When Life Gets in the Way: Discontinuous Vacuum Rings

Melanie Sarzynski, Wiss Janney Elstner Associates, Inc.

Stiffening rings are commonly found in process equipment subjected to external pressure to enhance resistance to buckling. When in-service corrosion results in metal loss, a FFS evaluation may require repairs to maintain the design margin. On tall columns with lower section damage, restoration of wall thickness can be challenging to execute, and stiffening rings are often installed to achieve the same objective. However, existing appurtenances may limit the space available for full, circumference rings at preferred elevations leading to installation challenges. Experience suggests that items such as non-continuous tray support rings can be beneficial, but no guidance currently exists to allow engineers to account for this effect. This paper explores the installation of discontinuous vacuum rings to increase external pressure capacity of in-service equipment.

#162 FFS Case Study: Evaluation of Crack-like Flaws at Ring Joint Grooves

Melanie Sarzynski, Wiss Janney Elstner Associates, Inc.

RTJ flange joints are prone to cracking at the ring groove due to the prying action of the gasket during flange make-up and torqueing of the bolts, and the inherent stress concentration at the groove corner radii. However, the crack driving force (e.g., tensile stresses) tends to quickly dissipate away from the feature limiting crack growth. A Fitness For Service (FFS) assessment case study is presented where linear elastic fracture mechanics calculations were performed to establish the critical crack size, flaw tolerance and predicted crack growth under cyclic loading for a large, 30" manway flange. The study will compare and contrast results obtained using the closed-form SIF solutions from API 579-1 with those obtained with explicit modeling of the flaw with finite element analysis.

#163 Case Studies: Soda Ash Related Wash Piping Failures in Hydrotreaters

Jim McVay, Andeavor

Two case studies of failures of small bore connections in hydrotreating unit reactor effluent austenitic stainless steel piping systems where standard soda ash washing practices where utilized will be presented.  In both cases the piping design called for use of forged fittings and Alloy 825 pipe nipples where failures occurred.  Good practices for protection of austenitic stainless steel piping subject to Polythionic Acid Stress corrosion cracking (PTASCC) and avoidance of such failures will also be reviewed.

#172 IOWs - Implementation Experience and Lessons Learned

Vishal Lagad, Lloyd's Register

"As refinery infrastructure matures and current human experience is replaced with younger expertise, enhancing plant reliability and safety is ever more demanding. IOW implementation is perceived in the industry as being expensive – prohibitive even, primarily due to additional monitoring costs and infrastructure needed. From our experience, mid- to small-scale refiners can also benefit from IOWs, using existing instrumentation and cost-effective, ‘out-of-the-box’ sampling and monitoring solutions to address most critical operational issues and pick off the ‘low-hanging-fruit’. Technological advances in the areas of sensing, data visualization and notifications along with technological leaps in software and data acquisition, can be easily leveraged to make IOW implementations much more affordable and expedient. We plan to share our experiences and lessons learnt along the way in implementing IOWs."

#174 MI Fundamentals: Roadmap to Q1 Performance

William Minter, PinnacleART

Many Asset Integrity topics focus on application of cutting-edge point solutions. Many times these solutions can enhance existing, more advanced programs – however some operators are still struggling with the fundamentals. In an effort to re-engage operators that may be struggling in the 3rd or 4th quartile in terms of performance, this presentation will identify many of the basics of a solid Asset Integrity program and discuss how to develop a roadmap to bring your integrity program up to best in class – from the ground up.

#176 A105/A106 QA QC and Metallurgical Considerations

Puneet Saggar,Lloyds Register

A subtle difference between various carbon steel grades makes them more prone to brittle fracture in moderately colder temperatures. Most of the times, heats produced from these grades seem to meet and exceed the referenced ASTM/ASME specification making QA/QC function unable to halt them being filtered into the system. Simplest basic metallurgical fundamentals and their know-how in specifications can make inspectors effective during their third party inspection visits. QA/QC function in production companies can benefit with the know-how of these basic differences.

#180 Optimizing Pressure Relief Valve Inspection Intervals

Nancy Faulk, Siemens

"Determining the correct interval for pressure relief valve inspection, testing, and maintenance remains a major challenge for facilities covered by the U.S. OSHA PSM Standard. Facilities may be inspecting PRVs more (or less) frequently than necessary, noting that API 510 lists a maximum time span of 10 years between shop inspections and overhaul, unless qualified by a risk-based inspection assessment. Direction is often requested for determining the proper interval for valves in typical process services, especially in cases of PRV chattering. In this paper, a decision-making approach to determining these intervals based on combined understanding of risk-based inspection (API 580/581), engineering analyses, and PRV reliability is presented. Longer inspection intervals may be justified for many PRVs, enabling focus instead on higher risk PRVs."

#183 Alkaline Carbonate SCC In a Two-Stage Sour Water Stripper Unit - A Case Study

Mike Schmidt, CHS Inc

"The CHS Laurel Refinery experienced an on-stream piping leak shortly after the installation and start-up of a new Two-Stage Sour Water Stripper Unit. The leak was due to a circumferential crack adjacent to the heat affected zone of a butt weld. Metallurgical analysis revealed the presence of alkaline carbonate stress corrosion cracking. Discussion topics: crack morphology, repair methodology, future mitigation plans, process sampling efforts and risk analysis. Although ACSCC is relatively well known in FCC / Light End Fractionation Units, it is relatively new for Sour Water Stripper (SWS) Units. The objective of this presentation is to share the incident details and further the awareness of this damage mechanism occurrence within SWS Units."

#187 Carburization Inspections for Radiant Tubes within Ethylene Cracking Furnaces

Wichit Yokyongpraserd, SCG Chemicals Co., Ltd.

Carburization inspections on radiant tubes in Ethylene Cracking-Furnaces are one of the most critical applications within Ethylene plants, which apply condition-based maintenance strategy. Conventional inspection is carried out by setting-up scaffolding and inspecting the tubes by handheld devices which carry risks of working at heights within a confined-space. However, the collected data is often limited and unrepeatable.To overcome this issue ,  a robot is developed to inspect the degree of carburization. The robot allows thorough inspection of radiant tubes with nearly-continuous data collection without working at heights, yielding faster data collection speeds with higher accuracy. The collected data enables plants to carry out life assessment of the tubes and to optimally plan for their full or partial recoiling schedule.

#189 304 H stainless Steel Heavy-Wall Piping: Metallurgical and Design Considerations

Roxanna Alvarez, Lloyd's Register Energy Americas, Inc.

Welds of large diameter and heavy wall stainless steel (304H) piping, subject at service temperatures above 1000F, are prompt to crack after long time of exposure.  Welds are expected to have the greatest susceptibility to crack at high stressed locations during shutting down, and starting up where Sigma phase formation along with creep damage would play a key role on susceptibility of cracking.  Metallurgical and design control needs to be defined In order to reduce the likelihood of cracking. Filler metal and weld procedure should be carefully selected to minimized sigma phase. Welded elbows should follow the ASME requirements for fabrication. Chemicals composition control and annealing heat treatment would also contribute to reduce the probability of failure.

#193 Using 3-D Laser Scanning for FFS Finite Element Models

Michael, Cifuentes, TXF Ingeniería

The API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 recommends the use of finite element simulations for some Fitness-for-Service Level 3 evaluations. This type of simulation can be completed utilizing the real geometry and dimensions of an asset, obtained by using 3D laser scanners. The presentation will discuss the procedures used to obtain the CAD geometry/dimensions of the asset.  This includes: asset capture (with the scanner along the perimeter to obtain the actual geometry of the body); the processes for the point clouds filters (allowing the cleaning and establishment of the geometry of interest); the generation of solid CAD geometries; CAD details adaptation for model simulation by finite element analysis; and, simulation of the geometries obtained from the points cloud.

#198 Classification Of Corrosion Failures

Gerald Hunt, Scientific Testing

The purpose of this presentation is to show real-world examples of the three classifications of corrosion: general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmental corrosion. The slides will show both macroscopic and microscopic of forensic metallurgical examples from the oil refining industry that cause damage to pressure vessels, tanks and piping.  This discussion also includes how these damage mechanisms can be prevented or mitigated by the refinery.

#200 Common Errors when Conducting Cracking and Bulging Inspections of Coke Drums

Mahmod Samman, Houston Engineering Solutions, LLC

Three commonly-used practices that are utilized to inspect cracks and bulges in coke drums can lead to significant errors, unanticipated failures, and unplanned shutdowns. In this presentation, the following practices are examined and examples of consequential failures discussed: (1) Ultrasonic inspection of the cone side of a skirt attachment weld, (2) Smoothing of laser scan data, and (3)  Internal ACFM inspection of seam weld cracks. Suggestions for voiding these errors are provided.

#201 Continuous Thickness Monitoring in High-Temperature Service

Tim Stevenson, Ionix Advanced Technologies

"Installed sensors offer reduced errors in UT thickness measurements, particularly at high-temperature/in-service. Often incorporated into autonomous monitoring systems, these can carry concerns around data-security, battery-life and lack of qualified, authorised signatories. Here a hybrid approach, combining installed high-temperature UT transducers whilst operated under a conventional manual data collection system, offers corrosion monitoring using inductively coupled (NFC) battery-less technology. HTUT transducers with a passive antenna were installed under cladding on 12”sch.40 carbon-steel pipework at T>270°C, and A-scans collected by operators using an NFC ""Wand"". From site trials presented, this approach allows faster data collection, and more corrosion data per operator per day with significant reduction in operator exposure to hazardous environments. This system is shown to significantly reduce errors, and maintain qualified signatory through e-reporting."

#203 Process Piping Vibration Assessment and Mitigation

Scot McNeill, Stress Engineering Services, Inc.

"A combination of piping flexibility, high process flow rates, multi-phase flow and flow obstructions can lead to excessive piping vibrations, resulting in fatigue failure.  Case studies are presented to illustrate vibration assessment and mitigations. An assessment of heater outlet piping was performed using field-measured vibrations and a CAESAR II model.  Additional support conditions were designed using the model and implemented in the field.  Vibration data, retaken after installation of the additional supports, showed that the system passed fatigue analysis. Elevated vibrations resulted in small bore connection failures at the feed lines to an FCCU regenerator.  Pressure pulsation and vibration measurements showed two dominant frequencies, both near 40 Hz.  Analysis indicated that the frequencies were likely due to acoustic modes.  Short-term and long-term recommendations were provided."

#204 Mechanical Integrity Program Development for New Construction

Matthew Caserta, Becht Engineering, Co.

"Development of mechanical integrity programs is not new to the refining and petrochemical industry.  Most of the experience related to the development of these programs is for existing process units that have many years of operating history.  When new units are constructed or significant revamps completed, the mechanical integrity programs are typically left to be completed after the unit has been commissioned. Marathon Petroleum and Becht Engineering completed a project to implement mechanical integrity programs for 2 process units that were under construction.  This project involved developing a damage review, IOWs, and CCDs.  Building on the damage mechanisms, an RBI analysis was completed and inspection drawings were created. This presentation will focus on the advantages of setting a MI program during the construction phase."

#208 Case Study: FFS Program P91 Operating in the Creep Range

Lange Kimball, Stress Engineering Services

API 579-1 (Part 10) recognizes the risk involved with components operating in the creep range. Piping Codes established mandatory chapters on the maintenance of such piping. To address this, Joe Frey, Chapter VII author and past B31,1 chairman, developed a “Best-In-Class” Fitness-for-Service (FFS) program aimed at helping Operating Companies comply.  An FFS program has 5 major steps including documentation, field verification, elastic and creep stress analyses plus corrective actions and testing.  With this information, Owner / Operators have verifiable information to help maintain the piping safely and reliably.  This paper details using this program on P91 piping. It includes brief descriptions of each step leading to initial non-destructive testing (NDT) of the piping. The results of this testing are discussed including the results and recommendations.

#209 Case Study: Wall Loss due to Flow Accelerated Corrosion

Lange Kimball, Stress Engineering Services

As a result of fatal accidents, pipe wall loss due to FAC is currently recognized as a serious safety concern for many industries.  Codes such as the API 579-1 and ASME B31.1 have long recognized that pipe wall loss due to FAC should be monitored at the very least. This includes Parts 4 and 5 of API 579-1 and the mandatory Chapter VII on the Operations and Maintenance of covered piping systems (CPS) published in the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code   Awareness of this degradation mechanism must be part of a FFS program.  This paper details one utility’s experience in setting up an FAC program. It describes the program including initial testing of select locations. The results are discussed including recommendations.

#228 On-Stream Acoustic Emission Monitoring for Instantaneous Detection of HTHA Cracking

Valery Godinez, MISTRAS Group, Inc.

Acoustic Emission has been an effective tool for on-stream monitoring of various assets. It can provide an indication of when crack initiation/growth occurs in the component being monitored. Being an instantaneous detection technique, it can be correlated with process parameters to identify which process parameter(s) may be driving the crack growth.  In this presentation an example of this will be provided. A vessel with existing HTHA cracks was instrumented with AE sensors. The system collected AE data as well as temperature and pressure information. When AE from the area of the cracking was detected, these parameters were reviewed and correlated with crack activity. It was shown which was driving the cracking.

#264 Remaining Life Assessment of Heater Tubes Using MPC Omega method

Sudharsanan Soundararajan, Abudhabi National Oil Company [ADNOC]- Refining

"Samples of 5Cr-0.5Mo tubes were removed from a Crude Heater after 35 years [306,810 hours] of service with a maximum tube wall temperature 490°C(914°F).  Since the tubes exceeded the design life of 100,000 hours, a remaining life assessment was carried as per API579-1/ASME FFS-1.  This presentation will discuss the methodology used in the assessment: Metallographic analysis characterizing the microstructure. High temperature tensile and impact testing. Accelerated creep testing to determine the Omega parameter(Ωm) and initial strain rate(εco). The material scatter parameters ΔΩcd and ΔΩsr were adjusted to match test data. A Level 3 assessment demonstrated that material properties are within the scatter band and remaining life of more than 25-years was predicted. Sensitivity analysis identified the critical operating conditions."

#276 Inspection and Rubber Lining Replacement of Water Demineralization Anion Tower

Hassan Alhammad, KEMYA (a SABIC & ExxonMobil Joint Venture)

"Demineralization system is used as a make-up for the Condensate System and to remove impurities from water. This important and critical system involves two reactions, cation and anion. There are two complete trains for this system, because it is the heart of the plant and its absence may lead to total plant shutdown. During Resin Replacement in Anion Tower, internal inspection was performed and found that rubber lining is damaged. Rubber lining had some holes, severe cracks, and embrittlement, which allowed metal to be exposed directly to process fluid. Also, fluid seepage and bulging in several locations compromised on mechanical integrity. Rubber lining was removed completely. New lining was applied, followed by curing. Spark, rubber thickness, and hardness tests were performed to ensure mechanical reliability."

#279 Pressure Vessels 101 ASME Design by Rule for Pressure Vessels

Marvin Coats, Hellier/Codewest

"Provide insight into the use of ASME Section VIII. Division 1 in association with various operational and repair/alteration activities in implementation of an API 510 Inspection Program.  Also covered is the history of the “built in” factors of safety in establishing the allowable stresses (as found in ASME Section II, Part D) for pressure calculations. Included is a discussion of the historical adaptation of the “Barlow” formula (actually applicable to both vessels and piping) and brief of applicability of the “Lame” equation for thicker wall components. The development of “efficiency factors” for weld joints examined by radiography (RT) is covered. Various other topics such as weld joint “types” and recent adoption of ultrasonic (UT) substitution for RT are covered."

#280 Discussing Structural Tmin for Piping: Update to API 574, Table 6

Kraig Shipley, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

API 574, Table 6 provides the a list of minimum structural (Tstruct) and minimum alert (Talert) thicknesses.  These were developed to prevent sag, buckling, and collapse at supports.  Of the many limitations on the usage of Tstruct, the 400°F maximum temperature and carbon steel or Cr-Mo materials are the most limiting.  This presentation provides an update to the Tstruct table by extending the range to include stainless steel and low chrome materials.  It will also present an introduction to additional assessment criteria.  Also, the calculations were extended to assess Class 150 thru Class 2500 piping systems.  This presentation will provide the assessment methodology and new Tstruct tables, which will form the basis for an API 574 ballot to update the Tstruct and Talert tables..

#281 Simplified Fracture Mechanics for ASME B31.3 Piping Using a Minimum Allowable Temperature Method

Craig Shipley, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

Brittle fracture studies of piping systems to ASME B31.3 requires a piping flexibility analyses to quantify piping longitudinal stress ratios.  These may govern the Minimum Allowable Temperature (MAT) assessment over the hoop stress.  This method does not provide any benefit for PWHT which from fracture mechanics is a large contributor to the acceptable flaw size.  This presentation will review step-by-step Level 1 and Level 2 procedures for establishing a MAT for low-temperature applications of B31.3 piping.  It is based on state-of-the-art fracture mechanics methodology which takes credit for low residual stresses from PWHT.  A simplified approach to estimate thermal expansion stress of a low-temperature operating piping system will also be discussed, as well as a case study which demonstrates the application of the proposed methodology.

#288 Experience with 800HT coker furnace tubes

Nathaniel Griffen, Phillips 66

Coker furnace tube failures in delayed coking units at refineries can have a major impact on safety and reliability. Alloy 800HT coker furnace tubes experienced higher than expected corrosion rates resulting in multiple failures. Metallurgical evaluations were performed and damage mechanisms were determined to be Nickel-Nickel Sulfide eutectic melting and sulfidation. The sensitization of alloy 800HT during fabrication and maintenance activities increased the susceptibility to sulfidation. Other possible damage mechanisms, such as carburization, creep, and naphthenic acid corrosion, were not key factors in the furnace tube degradation. The target audience for this presentation is engineers and experienced inspectors.

#289 Failure of Methanol Reformer Outlet Pigtails

Muhammad Bilal, Saudi International Petrochemical Company (SIPCHEM)

During "Catalyst Tubes Replacement" at Steam-Reformer of SIPCHEM Methanol plant, multiple cracks were observed in HAZ area of outlet pigtails. Initially, grinding and weld-repairs were recommended, but cracks started propagating forcing partial replacement of pigtails having a service life of three years only. Initial analysis and testing revealed that cracks resulted from stress relaxation cracking caused by 617 filler wire apparently suitable but has lower coefficient of expansion which increased residual stress levels. Later, based on comprehensive operational data analysis, it was discovered that tubes were exposed to a drastic thermal shock which initiated thermal stress cracking. This case study is intended for broader audience and shall explain investigation details, key findings and recommended solutions for outlet pigtails and manifolds welding and consumable selection.

#290 Microbial Corrosion: Post-Construction Damage and Mitigation

William (Bill) Schaal, Gilbane

"Corrosion affects many metal and plastic compositions used in industry, including lower 300 series stainless steel (SS).  Worldwide, microbial induced corrosion (MIC) and biofouling challenge the oil and gas industry economically and technologically.  Engineers, operators, and inspectors are employing state-of-the-art molecular microbial methods (MMM) to identify and monitor microbes causing MIC. Conveyance, process, and storage systems impacted by MIC involve crude, refined products, oily and other wastewater, and other chemical compositions.  These systems are employed in piping and pipelines, refinery processes, cooling towers, geothermal energy, wastewater and groundwater treatment, and storage tanks.  While MMM advancement relies on high-tech methodologies, this paper reviews post-construction damage, biofouling, mitigation, and remedy related to MIC and the microbes that cause it."

#292 Failure Analysis of Radiant Section Tube in Ethane Cracking Heater

Mohammad Diab, Yanpet / SABIC

High Temperature Alloys are of a major interest in the petrochemical’s ethane cracking heater/furnace due to their excellent properties to resist different failures mechanisms. This case study reports the findings of an investigation that was conducted to identify the degradation mechanism of high temperature alloy’s radiant section tube of ethane cracking furnace that led to tube rupture and leaking. On stream inspection and initial signs of failure related to the damage mechanism was also described. Several techniques were used in this investigation including XRD analysis, optical microscopy and the utilized NDT. The failure mechanism along with the details investigation, results, effect of materials/alloys and controlling methods as well as the remedial suggested action were discussed/set in order to avoid the re-occurrence of such failure.

#298 ASME B&PV Code VIII-2: Background, Initiatives and Cost Savings

James Sowinski, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

The release of the 2017 edition of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2 (ASME VIII–2) marks the 10th anniversary of the major rewrite to the codebook.  The stated goals of the rewrite were to improve user-friendliness and breakdown barriers of its use, to make the codebook competitive with vessel codes in the European market, and to deliver new state-of-the-art design rules and concepts to the users.  This paper will provide background on the rewrite of ASME VIII-2, the initiatives ASME has taken to promote the codebook to the pressure vessel community, and the means to achieve real cost savings for new construction of process equipment in the refining and petrochemical industries.

#300 Spring Hanger Pipe Support and Maintenance

Chuck Thornton, Versa Intergrity Group

The API 570 Piping Inspection Code and API RP 574 Inspection Practice, ASME B31.1 Power Piping and B31.3 Process Piping Codes recommend pipe supports should be maintained. Since 2007, the B31.1, Chapter VII requires owners to know the condition of their pipe supports on the Covered Piping Systems operating within the creep regime. The presentation covers the lifecycle of a spring hanger pipe supports from design, installation, operation, inspection and maintenance and will discuss the main features of an acceptable inspection and maintenance program. Also, the importance of both visual and hands-on inspections during both “cold” and “hot” operating conditions is emphasized. Some examples of previous work will be shared to illustrate and reinforce problems with not only spring hangers, but pipe supports in general.

#302 Fitness-for-Service: The Fire Damage Assessment Process and Lessons Learned

Gyorgy Szasz, Stress Engineering Services, Inc

Fire damage assessment (FDA) in the petrochemical industry is guided by Part 11 of the API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 Fitness-for-Service industry standard. There are, however, aspects of the FDA process that leave room for interpretation, and the approach has to often be modified to suit the needs of a particular site. Valuable lessons learned can be carried forward from each project to help establish best practices. Since FDA projects are by nature very dynamic, and the scope can be growing or changing throughout the execution, these experience based best practices can help prevent the effort from descending into chaos. This presentation will provide a review of the fundamental steps in the process involved along with several lessons learned while performing them.

#304 Performance Evaluation of Anti-Condensation Coatings

Kareem Khalil, Yansab (SABIC)

"Piping and equipment operating at lower temperatures than the ambient, but above freezing point, experience surface condensation problems. For insulated surfaces, this condition creates CUI risk. For non-insulated surfaces, surface condensation causes coating breakdown, algae growth and increased corrosion rate, resulting in an increase in maintenance costs and health and safety risks. There have been a number of insulating coating products developed in the coating market in the recent years. In addition to being a thermal barrier for higher temperature applications, one application is to reduce surface condensation. Trials have been conducted in a petrochemical plant in Saudi Arabia and showed satisfactory results in reducing condensation and raising the surface temperature to a range that is away from the dew point."

#306 Inspector/technician experience and the need for Detailed Inspection Plans

Dana Baham, Becht Engineering Company, Inc.

The lack of experience of today's contract pressure vessel Inspectors drives home the need for well written and very detailed pressure vessel Inspection plans. The plans should include qualification testing for NDE technicians for pressure vessel and tube testing. Plans should detail material of construction and all possible damage mechanisms and where and how to look for the manifestation of those mechanisms. API 510 advises on subject matter for these plans, however I am suggesting providing a plan requiring specific inspections and their locations AND a detailed inspection results form that even the most inexperienced inspector can completely fill out. Will Include examples of such forms

#313 Using Mechanical Integrity Improvements in Planning a Successful Turnaround

Wilfredo Rivero, GE Digital

"In 2014, a Latin America petrochemical company identified many opportunities to gain  improvement in mechanical integrity in terms of knowledge, cost, accuracy and inspection confidence.  These opportunities were based on the integration of RBI, inspection history, IOW implementation, and process performance improvements. The RBI program implementation and IOW performance were the primary foundations used to optimize the turnaround scope of work for 2015. This presentation will discuss the program, the opportunities, and the benefits achieved by this initiative which include: Definition of optimized turnaround scope of work based on risk. $325M annual savings for maintenance and logistic work reduction. Reducing the potential of unplanned shutdowns, saving a potential production loss of $450M (US) per day. IOW management optimization"

#317 Contact Point Corrosion detection using Guided Current Testing (GCT)

Paul Nash, Carbon Steel Inspection subsidiary of Versa Integrity

"Structural piping and process/transfer lines that require physical supports have a tendency to create a potential corrosion site. In the past these areas were both difficult and costly to inspect. A 4 point resistance measurement technique called Guided Current Testing (GCT) addresses these issues and provides Reliability Engineers and Inspection departments a tool to complete non-destructive inspections that are less expensive and faster than other testing techniques on the market. The technique is extremely repeatable and consistent, enabling it to be used as a trending inspection for corrosion rates and life assessment. A similar presentation was provided by Gary Kroner at the 2013 API Summit when this technology was being introduced into the market, we will be providing a 5 year look back as well."

#318 Opportunities to better capture the value of today's advanced NDT Technologies

John Burke, INVISTA

"Methods to help industry improve valued gained from fixed equipment inspections through field application of existing and new nondestructive technology. Owner users and service industry need to step up our game. Breaking down the silos and sharing knowledge as a team to create maximum value. The presentation will outline improvement opportunities using real time examples of where capable technology was utilized, but value was lost when important information was not conveyed. Technologies with solutions for each to engage audience: Phased Array inspection of Tee with calibration, sensitivity, and sizing opportunities. Digital Radiography with measurement opportunities. Pulsed Eddy Current with improper application. Ultrasonic thickness missed opportunities. Exchanger tube inspection probability of detection and sensitivity. Ultrasonic examination of vessel without, understanding expected damage mechanisms"

#327 Achieving Mechanical Integrity: A Holistic Approach

Gregory Weber, Fidelis Associates

API's Advancing Process Safety Assessments and OSHA’s PSM Audits reveal that Mechanical Integrity continues to be the industry's toughest challenge. The problem isn’t the ability to perform a specific inspection, but rather the capability to integrate the fundamentals of a comprehensive and effective MI program. Designing a successful system requires a management system perspective which integrates corporate policies, work processes and industry codes through defining an asset lifecycle process and addressing specific RAGAGEP requirements. Data on both equipment condition and work process status is captured in a software application. Improved work process performance and asset condition analysis is achieved through thoughtfully designed reporting. These analyses provide greater insight than typical periodic audits and are readily and continuously available.

#328 Caustic SCC of Gr. T22 (2-1/4Cr) Superheater Tube Welds

Sri Chimbli, Stress Engineering Services Inc.,

Cracks were found in T22 (2-1/4Cr-1Mo) tube welds of the first superheater of a heat recovery steam generator. Failure analysis revealed that the cracks were consistent with caustic embrittlement or caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Variations in the hardness of the cracked and intact welds indicated nonuniformity in stress relieving (PWHT). An effective stress relief heat treatment for the tubes was established by hardness measurements on test welds that had been PWHT using electric resistance heating similar to that performed in the field. Hardness measurements were then performed to evaluate the uniformity of stress relieving on the repair welds. This presentation summarizes the failure analysis methodology, results of simulated stress relieving, and inspection criteria to determine the effectiveness of stress relieving to mitigate such failures.

#331 Real-time Distributed Monitoring & Measurement for Pipeline Asset Integrity

Tara Merry, Baker Hughes, a GE Company

"Pipeline events cost the Oil & Gas industry billions of dollars each year.  Leaks can result in major incidents, negatively-impacting the safety of humans and the environment, and costing businesses their reputation and profitability.  The integrity of pipeline assets can be managed more efficiently and effectively than ever before. Technological advancements combining fiber optic sensors and cloud-based software can optimizes asset integrity through distributed real-time monitoring of pipelines.  New solutions can connect operators to the assets they manage in real-time by performing multiple-variable analysis (acoustic, temperature, strain) to discern real events from false event conditions. Access to information about critical pipeline issues before they start, or immediately as they occur, allow operators to benefit from: reduced false positives, improved detection of and response to leaks."

#334 Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Co Electroplating on Bolting for Upstream/Downstream Applications

Omar osas, Doxsteel Fasteners

A common problem for fasteners in the oil and gas industry is the corrosion compromising their functionality and increasing the risk of failures. Coatings have been used to protect bolting from corrosion, nickel-cobalt electroplating provides high corrosion resistance to steel fasteners and enhances the assembly by preventing oversizing of bolts and nuts. In this work, the corrosion resistance performance of different coatings was compared; the superior performance of Ni-Co electroplating features this coating as a protection for carbon and high-strength steel bolts used in the Oil and Gas industry. The results from this effort are relevant for engineers, inspectors, and maintenance personnel in all sectors, from offshore and subsea equipment in upstream, to transportation and processing and refining in midstream and downstream.

#337 Vibration integrity management – new tools to avoid fatigue failure

Michael Cyca, Wood

"This presentation introduces an easy-to-use method to identify, assess and track piping vibration, a common integrity risk. Industry guidelines such as the Energy Institute’s “Avoidance of Vibration-Induced Fatigue Failure in Process Pipework” can narrow down high-risk areas and focus remediation efforts where they are needed, however, its application can be overly complicated. Engineers have been challenged to decipher conditions with spreadsheets to perform the required calculations – with varying levels of success. Spreadsheets have been prone to costly errors and inefficiencies when faced with large-facility calculations. New tools to perform risk calculations, track anomalies and avoid errors have been developed by the authors of the guideline, providing a quantitative risk assessment and mitigation strategy for designers, engineers, managers and operating personnel of pressure equipment facilities."

#338 Making sense of piping vibration measurements

Rob Swindell, Wood

"Excessive vibration in process piping of pressure equipment facilities is a high-impact integrity risk and common failure mechanism. Based on studies by the UK Health & Safety Executive, 21% of hydrocarbon releases are due to vibration-induced fatigue failure. Piping vibration velocity measurements are often characterized as ‘acceptable’, ‘of concern’ or ‘dangerous.’ But what does this mean in terms of potential fatigue damage and associated fatigue life, particularly when the system under inspection is only operating intermittently? This presentation explores the relationship between vibration velocity measurements, dynamic stress and fatigue damage accrual and provides initial guidance on interpreting measured vibration velocity data, particularly for intermittently operating systems. The topic is relevant to inspectors, engineers, managers and operating personnel of pressure equipment facilities subject to vibration."

#340 FFS: Discussion of the Cracking Assessment Input Parameters and Related Estimation Methods

Daniel Ayewah, Stress Engineering Services

Crack-related damage mechanisms are often found in various assets throughout the refining and petrochemical industries. These require engineering assessment to determine their fitness-for-service. However, the assessment is only as good as the available inputs and the assumptions employed. Excess conservatism can lead to results that are not useful. In this presentation, a review of the key inputs required for crack assessment is provided along with a discussion of estimation methods when the required data is not available. This information should aid inspectors and engineers tasked with these assessments. Also, the case study will concern a 24-inch steam process piping system on which multiple leaks – from cracks – were discovered.  This will be used to illustrate the effect of varying the key inputs.

#344 Establishing Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs) for Refinery Fired Heaters

Tim Hill, Quest Integrity

"Understanding and establishing effective Integrity Operating Windows (IOW’s) is critical in the management of fired heater assets. IOW’s, as described by API 584, are a specific subset of operating limits focused on maintaining the integrity and reliability of process equipment. IOW’s address issues that involve process variables that, when not adequately monitored or controlled, can impact the likelihood and rates of damage mechanisms, leading to loss of containment. The establishment, implementation and maintenance of IOW’s employs a multi-disciplinary approach and should be considered an essential part of facility maintenance strategies. This presentation will provide an overview of the key components in establishing IOW’s, the levels of IOW limits, and the basic principles and application of API Recommended Practice 584 to achieve reliable fired heater performance."

#346 Latest advancements in PMI by XRF & LIBS handheld analyzers

Mark Lessard, ThermoFisher Scientific

"PMI is an important program at refineries and chem/power plants to help prevent catastrophic failures.. Three corrosion mechanisms will be discussed including Residual Elements in HFAlky Units, Sulfidation, and Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Traditionally, chemical analysis of CS piping has been performed by laboratory analysis of filings, or by use of spark-based optical emission spectroscopy. With its dramatically improved detection limits, ease of transport, and nondestructive analysis, handheld XRF and LIBS technology has now become a valid and industry-accepted method for PMI particularly for the detection of Carbon with LIBS. Details of recent advancements of handheld XRF and LIBS technology will be provided in the presentation and how they can be used as tools to prevent failures due to accelerated corrosion."

#353 Digitalization and Standardization of Visual Inspection Data for Business Intelligence

Ross Boyd, TruQC, LLC

"Standardizing and digitizing visual inspection data for fixed equipment improves performance, efficiency, and reduces costs. By adopting digital technologies, businesses can automate processes, analyze previously unmeasurable metrics and trends and use data from global facilities to improve decision making and mitigate risk. This presentation details how a top oil and gas company implemented a digital solution into their visual inspection work process and their resulting ROI. A visual inspection solution must provide an offline capable, easily adoptable and globally intuitive data collection tool that integrates with existing legacy company databases. By digitalizing the process, visual inspection has proven to immediately cut inspection and reporting time. Standardized visual inspection data available across all facilities greatly improves reliability's chances of identifying any causal factors related to failure."

#354 Performance-Based Assessment of an Incinerator Stack Using Field Measurements

Kenny Farrow, Stress Engineering Services Canada

ASME STS-1 provides guidelines for the design, fabrication, and erection of steel stacks, however there are no specific guidelines for the assessment of guyed steel stacks already in service. Furthermore, existing literature regarding the proper re-tensioning of guy wires is scarce or nonexistent. This procedure is particularly important for stacks that experience significant thermal growth. This effect is further exacerbated by directional wind cooling effects. This paper summarizes the effect of guy wire spacing, position, tension pattern, and operating and shutdown tension settings on the structural response of a guyed steel stack. Field tension measurements and laser scans are used to refine a finite element model of the stack. A performance-based methodology for lateral deflection is provided to guide fitness-for-service assessments and mitigation implementation.

#358 Components of a Modern PMI Program

Michael Hull, Olympus

Owner/operators require a robust PMI program to help ensure the safety and productivity of their operations. XRF is an integral part of any PMI program. Although PMI programs have been established for some time, systemic challenges exist. Advances in XRF technology have improved analytic results, test times, and data management. This presentation will discuss the current state of PMI inspection programs, the challenges encountered, best practices, and avenues for future development. This will include the impact of modern technology on test times, aspects of in-service testing, and seamless data management for reduced error and improved efficiency. Robust training programs, advances in XRF detector technology, and the utilization of connectivity and cloud services will be covered in detail.  This presentation will be non-commercial in nature.

#359 Seven Pillars of Mechanical Integrity

Steven Bolinger, Becht Engineering

This presentation describes the primary components or “Pillars” of a best-in-class Mechanical Integrity program.  Each component is described in detail and implementation of the various sub-components is discussed.  These components tend to be the major categories scored in a typical Mechanical Integrity program audit.  In recent years significant emphasis throughout industry has been on the Corrosion Management component of Mechanical Integrity.  Also, significant resources have been allocated to Risk Based Inspection (RBI) which often is utilized for the Inspection Planning component.  These two areas of emphasis have often resulted in minimizing the other major components and potentially negatively impacting the overall Mechanical Integrity program at a site.  This paper emphasizes the importance of all the major components.


Steven Bolinger, Becht Engineering

This presentation describes the development of Integrity Maps for a refinery.  Typically, pressure equipment failures in the form of Loss of Primary Containment (i.e. leaks) are caused by both internal corrosion and external corrosion damage mechanisms.  Approximately 50% of LOPC’s at any given site are the result of external damage mechanisms.   In order to address external damage mechanisms, Integrity Maps were built for each unit.  Integrity maps highlight the overall integrity health of a unit by emphasizing the external damage mechanisms and other factors, such as, the number of temporary repairs present, pressure relief valve performance, and safety instrumented system performance.  The maps also include a stop light chart of the state of the infrastructure.

#363 HTHA Advanced Vulnerability Assessments, Inspections, and FFS Approach

Arthur Jensen, PBF Energy

PBF Energy has applied advanced HTHA damage vulnerability modelling of equipment and piping at 5 USA refineries using proprietary methodology from an engineering consultant.  The results identified highest risk assets for prioritization of advanced NDE inspections, scoop sampling for laboratory examination, and asset replacements.  The NDE methods include on-stream acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, on-stream ultrasonic examinations, and off-stream highly sensitive ultrasonic and magnetic particle examinations.  Degradation consistent with the predictive modelling has been detected at early stages.  We then apply FFS methods along with additional on-stream monitoring to enable safe operation until the assets can be replaced.  These advanced practices have enabled PBF to reduce overall risk of HTHA and better prioritize inspection and capital replacement resources.

#366 Common Pitfalls of a PRV Reliability Program

Chad Patschke, Ethos Mechanical Integrity Solutions, LLC

This presentation discusses opportunities for improvement (OFIs) in pressure relief valve (PRV) reliability programs frequently identified as part of API's Process Safety Site Assessment Program (PSSAP). The presentation identifies common areas for improvement through the various elements of a PRV reliability program including visual on-stream inspections, inspection at removal from the process, transportation and handling, as-received pop testing, shop overhauls, final acceptance testing and reinstallation. All too often, opportunities for improvement are identified during the PSSAP that would strengthen a site's PRV reliability program. This presentation covers the common gaps and opportunities to enhance a PRV reliability program.

#367 Unmanned Data Management – Inspections and Beyond

Danny Landry, Premium Inspection & Testing Group

Most in the unmanned industry understand that sUAS (Drones) and robotics can be used to collect critical data. How are we using that data? How are we organizing it? How are we keeping it secure? How are we delivering it? Danny Landry will discuss case studies of best uses of inspection data and how to deliver it in the most effective way. Case studies will include cost saving/safety efficiencies as well as the hardware/software options to collect the data and use it.

#374 Review of Recent HF Alkylation Piping Failures at HollyFrontier

Terry McLane, HollyFrontier

Two facilities of the HollyFrontier Corporation will present up to 5 of the latest failures in their respective facilities.  We will focus on the mode of failures, how they were identified, the follow that has taken place at each site and as a company.  We will bring samples of the failed piping and review the metallurgical reports that identify the failure mechanism and weather or not Residual Elements were a factor in the failures.  We will share the plan of what we are doing in reference to expanded inspections in our HF Alky process units as a company.

#375 Investigating the Root Cause of a Heater Convection Tube Leak

Arthur Jensen, PBF Energy

A naphtha preheat furnace was shut down to investigate a possible convection tube leak. When the burners were shut off excess oxygen entered the fire box and the the leak ignited, causing a modest fire inside the convection box.  Sulfidation thinning was suspected as the coil neared end of life, but tube examination showed full wall thickness at the leak location.  Fouling deposits were found, causing excess metal temperature and multiple long-term degradation mechanisms and failure from creep rupture.  The fouling was not expected in clean naphtha service, but was found to be caused by a heat exchanger tube leak at the upstream crude unit.  This presentation highlights the importance of a thorough investigation (per API-585) and confirmation of causes based on evidence.

#388 High Temperature (400 degF) Phase Array Ultrasonic Examinations in Lieu of Radiography

David Bajula, Acuren

"This presentation will highlight the success of performing Phased Array at “400F hold temperatures” during welding of high chrome materials, P91, etc. where maintaining a minimum of 400F Initial qualifications of this process was accomplished in partnership with EPRI. This presentation will detail the process for qualifying the techniques including showing the results from similar “in-service” type examination requirements; i.e. weld root erosion at temperatures up to 600F. The techniques are qualified up to 700F and data presented at ambient is comparable to data at 700F with no significant variance."

#391 Union Oil Romeoville 1984 Amine Absorber Failure Revisited

Gerrit Buchheim, Becht Engineering

Almost 35 years ago the Union Oil Romeoville experienced a catastrophic failure of an amine absorber. The failure was due to SSC/SOHIC and determined the course of the US refining industry focusing on wet H2S cracking issues.  Given the installed base of sour service equipment, there have been very few leaks of PEI due to wet H2S cracking.  The premise of this talk is that the industry has spent countless resources finding minor cracking. CCD and RBI programs conservatively list wet H2S cracking of vessels and that drives frequent inspections and repairs.  This talk advocates using highly experienced materials/corrosion engineers to identify the few truly high risk equipment and utilize IOW’s to keep out of operating ranges where severe damage can be expected.

#392 MPT - Where Are We Heading With API 934F and API 579

Robert Brown, Becht Engineering

Gerrit Buchheim, Becht Engineering

Jim McLaughlin, Becht Engineering

"Minimum Pressurization temperature is the concept of making sure that the component being pressurized (typically over 25-40%) of Design pressure actually has sufficient toughness to resist a brittle fracture if unknown flaws or known flaws are present.  Ferritic base metal steels (2.25Cr family and 1.25Cr steels used in reactors and heavy wall equipment are subject to a number of embrittlement mechanisms, primarily temper embrittlement and hydrogen embrittlement at lower temperatures.  As the temperature increases upon start-up, the materials will have more toughness to resist brittle fracture initiating due to flaws.  API started a taskgroup API 934F many years ago to develop an RP for setting MPT”s and API funded  research in this area particularly in the case of 2.25Cr-1Mo-V steels.  A practical approach was developed and a draft of 934F was balloted.  API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 also has an effort to provide updated BF screening rules and a WRC 562 document was produced as a technical basis for API 579.  Unfortunately, these two approaches are somewhat different.  A study was recently funded by API and conducted by Dr. Ted Anderson and Prof Gangloff to look at the technical issues and they concluded that both approaches needed further refinement.  This talk will provide an update on the latest of where these documents stand and some practical advice for users now, while the approaches are finalized for publication. Minimum Pressurization Temperature is the concept of making sure that the component being pressurized (typically over 25-40%) of Design pressure actually has sufficient toughness to resist a brittle fracture if unknown flaws or known flaws are present. Ferritic base metal steels (2.25Cr family and 1.25Cr steels used in reactors and heavy wall equipment are subject to a number of embrittlement mechanisms, primarily temper embrittlement and hydrogen embrittlement at lower temperatures. As the temperature increases upon start-up, the materials will have more toughness to resist brittle fracture initiating due to flaws. API started a taskgroup API 934F many years ago to develop an RP for setting MPT”s and API funded research in this area particularly in the case of 2.25Cr-1Mo-V steels. A practical approach was developed and a draft of 934F was balloted. API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 also has an effort to provide updated BF screening rules and a WRC 562 document was produced as a technical basis for API 579. Unfortunately, these two approaches are somewhat different. A study was recently funded by API and conducted by Dr. Ted Anderson and Prof Gangloff to look at the technical issues and they concluded that both approaches needed further refinement. This talk will provide an update on the latest of where these documents stand and some practical advice for users now, while the approaches are finalized for publication."

#396 Localized Corrosion Inspection Locations for HF Alkylation Unit in Refinery

Huang Lin, Lloyd's Register Energy Americas, Inc.

Due to the characteristics of HF acid corrosion, HF acid corrosion is often localized in an HF Alkylation unit in the refining industry. The locations for HF localized corrosion are usually difficult to be predicted. It is one of the biggest challenges for inspection to perform piping inspection in an HF Alkylation unit. It is quite often that 100% coverage is required to perform piping inspection to address the concern for localized corrosion. This presentation discusses various mechanisms that result in the localized HF corrosion. Based on each mechanism and industry experience, typical localized inspection locations are recommended, which can help optimize the piping inspection program and reduce the cost.

#400 Incipient Hydrogen Damage in a 1Cr Reformer Reactor

Clay White, Phillips 66

Discussion will focus on observation and inspection of a 1950’s vintage 1Cr Reformer reactor for a combination of creep and HTHA damage utilizing AET, UTPA-TFM/FMC, WFMT and microstructural sampling. Recent inspections (where very small surface blistering was observed) and the lack of long term process monitoring led to concerns on the potential for creep and HTHA damage. Initial cool-down AET monitoring revealed areas in one reactor for follow-up inspection for potential HTHA damage. A combination of UTPA-TFM/FMC followed by scoop sampling was used to quantify results. Two large blisters were discovered in the head with additional evidence of incipient HTHA damage, resulting in retirement of the reactor.

#418 Water Resistance PVD Coatings

David Bell, Phygen

Piping is typically not given the type of attention that pressure vessels are afforded. Consequently many times in industry loss of containment or impacts to onstream reliability are related to issues in the piping circuits and their respective components. This presentation is a walk through 8 case histories looking at failure mitigation and remediation. It is focused on practical solutions by limiting impacts to production. Furthermore, the reason for why some of these failures occur and what can be done to prevent them in design is explored.

#429 Lessons Learned from New Stainless Steel Fabrication

Krista Heidersbach, Stress Engineering Services

As an industry, the trend has been to move towards low maintenance higher initial cost materials. However, when new SS piping systems are brought on-line, failures in the first few months are common.  This presentation will summarize the recent lessons learned from installation of a potable water system in a Gulf Coast refinery.  Lessons will cover materials specifications, post fabrication cleanup, and prevention of MIC.

#437 Identification and Inspection of Critical Thermowells

Jay Hawkins, Marathon Petroleum Corporation

The integrity of thermowells is a key component to operating a refinery reliably and safely. Historically, identification and inspection of critical thermowells has not been as clearly detailed as other components in a robust mechanical integrity program. One refining company has developed a specification giving definition to “critical” thermowells and direction to develop respective inspection plans. The list of critical thermowells was developed utilizing a multi-discipline team approach including representatives from inspection, operations, process engineering, and reliability. A combination of eddy current testing, dye penetrant testing, hydrotesting and visual examination were utilized to determine the integrity of the critical thermowells. This presentation will display a successful implementation of the inspection plans from two major turnarounds and the inspection results.

#2 The Potential Roles of Permanently Installed NDT Sensors

John Nyholt, John Nyholt Consulting, LLC

Permanently installed monitoring (PIM) NDT sensors have been commercially available since the 1990's. Many new PIM sensor manufacturers and technologies have since entered the market, however many petrochemical facilities still have limited or no experience with these technologies or their benefits. This talk will overview the various NDT technologies that are now available as a permanent, semi-permanent, or in-motion PIMs application, damage mechanisms that can be monitored by PIMs and how an integrity management program could benefit from highly reliable NDT data on demand. Several real world case studies will be presented followed by a recommendation for potential API PIMS Guidance on Practice document.

#8 Practical CUI/CUF Assessment for Pressure Vessels and Piping Systems

Brian Shannon, HSI Group Inc.

"Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) and Corrosion Under Fireproofing (CUF) represent significant challenges to asset integrity a reliable and effective inspection technology is necessary to address these issues. While existing methods such as Guided Wave Testing (GWT) provide a solution for detection of CUI on straight run piping, it is less attractive when applied to other components operators have had to rely on stripping insulation from tanks and vessels to detect CUI/CUF. For this inspection the HSI E-CAT™ (Electromagnetic Condition Assessment Tool) is being deployed. The system allows for active scanning on insulated surfaces ranging from small-bore piping to flat plates while providing a high POD for CUI/CUF damage. The paper will include an overview of the technology, and several examples from field inspections."

#15 Ultrasonic Applications Engineering Using Phased Array

Bruce Pellegrino, Sensor Networks, Inc.

Ultrasonic applications can be successfully developed, solved or optimized with either standard "off-the-shelf" or custom-designed and fabricated Phased-Array Ultrasonic (PAUT) transducers. In either case, a process should be followed in order to enable and/or optimize a validated technique.  This paper will outline the many steps in the process of PAUT applications engineering and show several case histories of such developments which cover a wide range of plant components.

#20 The Inspection of Thermal Insulation & CUI

Ron King, National Insulation Association

"The impact of corrosion under insulation (CUI) is well known. But what if the insulation system was installed and maintained properly – would that reduce the number of CUI occurrences? A thermal – mechanical insulation inspection program may help achieve that goal. There is general consensus that: Mechanical insulation knowledge base is slowly dwindling, Insulation “systems” are getting more complex, The shortage of experience and “qualified” workers continues to be problematic. The presentation will explore the potential impact a thermal insulation inspection program would have on reducing CUI and how it would positively impact the new construction, retrofit and the maintenance segments."

#23 Proactive, Systematic Approach to Identify and Prioritize Structural Infrastructure Repairs

Tom Kline, Structural Technologies

"Civil and structural infrastructure is an important asset that should be properly inspected and repaired based on condition and risk. Concrete can serve as foundations for large compressors, reactors, pipe racks, and as fireproofing for encapsulated structural steel support members. Concrete reliability can be affected by defects (design, materials, construction), damage (fire, impact, chemical) and/or deterioration (delamination, embedded metal corrosion, freeze-thaw, erosion). A proactive, systematic approach known as PCMS® (Plant Condition Management System) can be used to identify and prioritize repairs, and can include a visual walk-through and limited non-destructive testing (NDT). Visual examination techniques developed by ACI, ASCE, ICRI & USACE allow a Forensic Investigator to develop a detailed report that provides photographic documentation, asset condition, suggested repairs / costs, priority, and risk ranking."

#24 Asset Integrity Management – Training and Experience or Techniques?

Peter Millar, MMD Equipment and Service

It has been said that the Petrochemical Industry staggers from disaster to disaster and it takes something bad to happen for changes to come about. Historically it was the Piper Alpha disaster that brought changes in the North Sea and Texas City and Macondo which focused attention in the USA. At one time, RBI was seen as being the silver bullet for Asset Integrity and Reliability. Corrosion Control Documents and Integrity Operating Windows are great tools for identifying damage mechanism and operating excursions, but they are not enough. It can be argued that the “right” tools are useless in the hands of people with limited experience. Are we focusing too much on techniques and not enough on training, communication and identifying our real integrity needs?

#28 Application of x-ray backscatter devices for moisture detection in insulation

George Williamson, BP

back-scatter devices are commonly used in the security industry to detect drugs and other contraband. An off-the-shelf device without any modification was evaluated for potential application in Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) integrity management programs. The device was initially evaluated under simulated shop conditions. Subsequently, on-site plant trials were conducted that included verification of wet and dry insulation calls. This paper includes the results and learning from the application on both insulated piping and tanks.

#46 Current Corrosion Protection not working?, VCI can help!

Kelly Baker, Zerust Oil & Gas

"Vapor Corrosion Inhibitors (VCIs) have been used under the floor of AST's for many years.  How are VCIs being used?  They are not typically displacing the use of Cathodic Protection (CP) but they can be used in conjunction with CP. API 651 outlines the use of Cathodic Protection for a variety of AST foundation designs and then suggests that CP may not be a viable option in several situations, including; CP system is not working, Double Bottoms, Concrete pad, tank floor is not in contact with the sand pad, annular ring on top of concrete ring wall. Presentation discusses situations where VCI is an option.  An overview of the regulatory status, foundation design, installation methods and resulting data from different foundation designs will be presented."

#62 Continuing Education for Inspectors

Randall Stremmel, RPS Welding Consultants

The oil industries have become bigger, faster and stronger than ever before, what do I mean by this? Refineries are now being created to operate with a longer lifespan, pipelines are crisscrossing the country with higher pressures and volumes, and we are drilling deeper into the earth than we ever imagined 20 years ago. New processes, technology, and engineering that have been developed to allow these gains in the oil field, have come at a cost. That cost is cold hard cash, these assets are required to work at a higher volume, pressure, and speed for longer amount of time. And to accomplish this, inspectors need to develop their knowledge and understanding of everything around them. What can an inspector do?

#70 ASME Section IX. Reviewing Welding Documents 101

Grady Hatton, Pro-Surve Technical Service, LLC.

Reviewing Welding Documents 101 will simplify the basics of how to approach the review of welding document as the WPS, PQR, and WQR. The presentation will not attempt to dissect ASME Section IX in its entirety but rather give the attendee some method of quickly and simply determine the correctness of the documents as it refers to the particular welding project. The review of welding documents are completed for project work as well as repairs to assure that the quality of the work achieved is of the quality expected and is documented correctly. The main objective is to point out essential variables and their respective places in the documents and where non-essential variables are called out and how they should appear in the documents.

#87 Next Generation Asset Performance Management

David Drerup, Operational Sustainability, LLC

One of the biggest challenges facing every asset-intensive organization is, “How can I operate more safely and reliably while optimizing performance, reducing risk and improving quality – and do it all at a lower, sustainable cost?” Meeting that challenge requires that companies adopt a broader Asset Performance Management (APM) perspective, and change their thinking about assets and how to manage them. The typical refining and chemical company has invested millions in assets, processes, and systems to deliver the results the business demands. And, they’ve made that investment while attempting to mitigate safety, financial, production, and environmental risks. All of those assets and systems are capable of producing data that can generate insight for smarter decision-making.

#117 Using Autonomous Drones for Ultrasonic Inspection of Flare Stacks

Jamie Branch, Apellix

Performing ultrasonic testing (UT) of flare stacks using autonomous drones offers an alternative and safer approach to obtaining wall thickness measurements. Autonomous flight describes the aircraft’s ability to programmatically approach and touch a standard UT probe to an elevated material surface without human interruption. This feature is critical for elevated structures, as the human eye has difficulty assuring proper alignment and contact while standing on the ground. Case studies will be presented to illustrate the current state of the technology. The benefits, and limitations, of autonomous UT drones will be evaluated and discussed in specific regards to flare stacks, as well as generally for elevated equipment and infrastructure.

#119 NDE of In-Service Equipment by Aerial Thermography and Phase-Array Ultrasonic

Fernando López, Torngats

This paper presents the implementation of an advanced strategy to monitoring and assess the integrity of in-service equipment through the integration of Aerial IR Thermography and Phase-Array Ultrasonic. The strategy implies the detection and quantification of internal anomalies through the acquisition, processing and analysis of infrared and ultrasonic data. To this aim, it is used an unnamed aerial vehicle and an IR thermal camera for the detection of abnormal thermal patterns in in-service components. After completing the analysis of the IR data, it is performed the quantification of the wall thickness using encoded PAUT inspections in the zones previously determined by the IR inspection. This strategy has been successfully implemented in difference scenarios in the petrochemical industry and the results are reported here in.

#126 API and ICP - A Guide to Involvment

Terry McLane, HollyFrontier

"How does a person get involved with API and ICP?  Can anyone volunteer time to help with Code, Standard and Test development?  Are there any requirements to being involved?  What is the path to getting a Code, Standard or test question changed, added or deleted?  Who writes the Codes, Standards and ICP test questions and what is the review process?  I will have the answers to these questions and more in presentation.  I will also have a general flow chart that shows the personnel involved and how items are accomplished. With this presentation I will open the eyes of inspectors, engineers, and others to the workings of API, ICP and to spark some interest for more personnel to get involved and engaged in the process."

#127 Predicting Dissimilar Metal Weld Failures Using Machine Learning Techniques

Martin Gascon, Intertek

The increasing share of renewable energy production has resulted in new challenges for the operators of traditional power plants who are required to maintain high reliability and high profits. For example, operations must become flexible when dealing with the thermal strain and the wear-and-tear of operations.  This is not unlike the challenges found in the petroleum refining industry.  This study found a correlation between flexible operations and Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMW) failures.  We tested different machine learning techniques and found that artificial neural networks is the best approach for analyzing these type of failures, exhibiting an overall prediction rate over 90%. This method can even reasonably estimate the time to failure.

#132 The Role of Emerging Technology in Driving Shutdown/Turnaround/Outage (STO) Success

Paul Muir, Mobideo

"In this presentation, you will hear how “cloud” and mobile device technology is dramatically improving STO schedule performance by: Automating work allocation based on available work fronts Providing accurate and real-time visibility of work status to support management decisions Providing real-time discovery and delay notifications Eliminating keyboard time and documentation tasks Supporting data-driven lessons learned and future planning Underpinning Innovative processes Removing communication-related “friction” and providing accurate real-time information to all stakeholders will move the work forward quickly and give you the tools and time you need to make the best decisions, as the unexpected unfolds. Real examples will be presented and the cultural and financial considerations of moving to a “Digital Turnaround” will be discussed."

#134 Pulsed Eddy Current - Inspection basics and uses

Ethan Williams, Magnetec Inspection, Inc.

Discussion into the basics and operation of Pulsed Eddy Current inspection technique. Basics of the technique application and how it is applied to specific inspections. Mode of operation and basic block diagram of equipment.Current industry usage and results. Differences from conventional eddy current and descriptions of where it would be utilized in industry. Defect presentations, defect sizing, defect resolution. Corrosion under insulation (CUI). Materials and conditions What materials can be inspected, Thickness limitations.Limitations to the technique, insulation considerations.

#136 UAV-sourced integrity information becomes part of the O&G digital revolution

Patrick Saracco, Cyberhawk Innovations

"Drones can collect a massive amount of data – close visual inspections of specific areas through to a complete visual record of an entire asset. Digitising this data, i.e. presenting it as a 3D model or an inspection report hosted in the cloud, allows asset managers to make efficient decisions on the condition of their equipment, and prioritise/budget contact NDT and repair. Temporal analysis can be developed and defects tracked, leading to the prediction of future problems. Inspection engineers/asset managers will hear Cyberhawk discuss how operators are integrating visual data into digital asset management systems to support more efficient decision-making and better communication between operators and contractors, by utilising a single “shared truth”. The efficiencies and benefits gained by doing so will also be discussed."

#152 FFS: Re-Evaluating Minimum Distance to a Structural Discontinuity

Scott Bouse, WJE Associates

API 579 (Fitness For Service) is the industry-leading standard for assessments of in-service pressure equipment.  It includes simplified methods for assessing found flaws, but with a common limitation that damage must be far away from a “Major Structural Discontinuity”.  The existing stand-off limits are often overly restrictive, preventing the use of hand calculations near structural discontinuities, regardless of type.  While the rules were intended to prevent owner-operators from inadvertently increasing risk of failure, the distance limits make no distinction as to the type of discontinuity, or whether it might increase risk of failure.  This presentation will explore the types of structural discontinuities, identify those that must be specially handled, and detail some of the efforts underway to revise the requirements included within API 579.

#159 Existing Concrete Ringwall Foundation Assessments

Kurt Tyler, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates

Existing reinforcing concrete wingwalls support the vertical loading of storage tanks and provide uniform load support for the tank shell; problems with differential settlement, cracking, and outward displacement of the ringwalls are frequent problems and are of significant risk for the viability of the tank shell. In this presentation, it will be discussed how various assessment techniques and analyses can be used to determine the adequacy of ringwall foundations to support tank shells.

#165 Development of a Pipeline Construction Inspector Career Roadmap

Ritch Rappel, Rappel Inspections Ltd.,,

As the pace of retirements increase, access to technical mentoring has become increasingly limited and knowledge about the potential career path as a construction inspector, historically shared through word of mouth, is diminishing. The industry must step forward to not only identify construction inspection as an attractive career but also provide a structured pathway for individuals looking to progress in this field. As part of developing a practical solution, a construction inspector career roadmap has been developed. The path proposes a number of disciplines within construction inspection and proposes to build on the significant industry work that is already in place through key industry organizations such as the API 1169 certification, NACE, AWS, and CWB.

#166 Introduction to Proposed Rewrite of API 579 Part 3 Procedures

Seetha Kummari, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

Inconsistencies and inadequacies exist in the current brittle fracture screening procedures in the 2016 edition of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1.  Results from an evaluation completed using the current published guidance may prove to be unsafe in some instances.  The ASME/API Joint Committee on Fitness-For-Service (FFS) recently initiated a project to rewrite API 579 Part 3, Assessment of Existing Equipment for Brittle Fracture.  The intent is to establish new Level 1 and Level 2 evaluation procedures and acceptance criteria developed using state-of-the-art fracture mechanics consistent with the Part 9 Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) approach currently employed in Level 3 evaluations.  In this presentation, the recently proposed procedures will be introduced, limitations and applicability will be discussed, and several case study examples will be demonstrated.

#168 Aligning Fitness for Service of Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Geoff Clarkson, UTComp Inc

"For fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) assets, Fitness for Service has historically been determined from only the condition of the inner surface, known as the corrosion barrier. These assessments do not incorporate any established standards. Structural condition is not usually considered and remaining service life is not determined. For equipment where the original design details are unknown, most codes used in North America are not equipped to to provide up to date Recognized And Generally Accepted Good Engineering Practice (RAGAGEP) assessment. This presentation will review experience with FRP assets and how Fitness for Service can be assessed using a novel ultrasonic technique. This will lead to discussion and recommendations for up to date Condition Monitoring and Fitness for Service assessment of FRP assets."

#170 Inspection Data Management Systems: more data doesn’t equal better information.

Geoff Clarkson, UTComp Inc

"The digital age has brought exponential data growth to all aspects of life including integrity management. Advancement in processing power and field data storage continues to allow higher resolution inspection. Associated challenges facing the oil and gas industry: Typical reduction in Operator integrity engineer positions and experience (outsourcing) Understanding the value behind data-heavy inspection techniques Ensuring that inspection scoping remains relevant to RBI analyses Using large amounts of data effectively to make informed decisions Availability of data to decision makers This presentation discusses these challenges and suggests opportunities to overcome by: Developing inspection strategies based on RBI analyses Standardising inspection reporting Utilising experienced persons to develop associations between data and risks Making the most of modern technologies Using cloud-based solutions to provide live, transparent information"

#179 Realizing the Full Potential of an Integrity Data Management System

Stephen Flory, PinnacleART

"Software implementation is a challenging process, and the way you approach it can determine whether you achieve success. While many vendors promote their solutions as the answer to occurring issues, software users know the results tend to fall short of those expectations. Oftentimes, the blame is put on the software, yet it is typically other activities around the software implementation that tend to have a larger effect on its success. This presentation identifies five themes that will help you to unlock the full potential of Meridium and PCMS—leading to improved safety, reliability, and availability.Goal/Vision: Develop Your Vision First, Data Cleanup: Data is the Foundation, Strategy Optimization: Focus on Program, Technical Configuration: Keep it Simple, Implementation: Provide Support"

#182 Construction Quality Management and Functional Checkout

Luke Miller, Marathon Petroleum Company

Review of a systematic process for planning and executing QAQC verifications on new construction or maintenance projects. This is based on offsite pipeline stations, but can be applied to any project type that is validating what was fabricated and installed in a system.  The system ensures what is constructed adheres to the approved design. This will include a review of tools for outlining project scope and performing functional checkout in a timely and efficient manner.

#185 Turnaround management - Maximizing MI Program Value during Shutdowns

John Bailey, Innovative Inspection Solutions

When production is stopped to perform a shutdown or facility turnaround, minimizing down time and maximizing productivity is absolutely critical.  Compressing the shutdown schedule or avoiding delays on the plan execution critical path can lead to significant cost reduction and a quicker return to income generation.  While wall chart hand written updates are simple to implement, they lack the robustness of web enabled access and reporting updates that can minimize slack time between activities to save thousands if not millions of dollars.  Integrating turnaround management with the Mechanical integrity system not only expedites access to critical information, but it allows real time progress tracking and updates to the master project schedule.

#194 Introduction to Advanced Non-Destructive Testing

Avinash Ripla, Lloyd's Register Central and South America Ltd

Inspection Programs are broad in scope, covering many materials, damage mechanisms, and geometries. To assess conditions, we rely heavily on various NDE methods to provide the required information to evaluate fitness for service. Occasionally, due to various factors, traditional NDE methods may not be possible or will not offer the most efficient or effective option. Advanced Techniques can be applied as a Fast Screening Tool ensuring larger amounts of coverage, and greater damage detection. Additionally, some geometries cannot be inspected with traditional methods, for example, assembled flange faces, buried piping, pipeline splash-zone. Understanding the different Advanced NDE methods and where they can be applied will allow for greater quality of information and overall benefit to your Integrity Program.

#196 Benefits of Implementing an Appropriate Inspection Data Management System

Natalie McIntosh, Lloyd's Register

"To effectively maintain reliability and safety for complex equipment and facilities, owners and operators do well to utilize effective tools to manage the life of their assets. Thus it is important to select the appropriate Inspection Data Management System (IDMS). This presentation aims to highlight the potential benefits that can be derived from the utilization of an appropriate IDMS to the inspection management strategy: 1) Simplification of Daily activities 2) Compliance with Standards and Regulations 3) Performance of activities on schedule 4) Maintenance and easy access to inspection records while improving management reporting and trend analysis 5) Appropriate Gauge interface. The target audience for the presentation are Inspection Managers, Engineers and Inspectors."

#206 Remote Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Critical Fixed Equipment

Steven Garcia, Ameriscan LLC

"Acoustic Emission (AE) testing is an NDE method which can be used to complement current structural health monitoring solutions. Using acoustic emission equipment, the condition of critical structures can be monitored in real-time without destroying the material condition or disrupting normal operations. Plant parameters can also be correlated to AE data to understand source behavior. Additionally, significant cost savings can be realized because AE monitoring does not require thermal insulation removal. Long-term monitoring projects spanning from several days to several years have been successfully implemented using this methodology. The methodology and lessons learned performing such long-term, real-time inspections using acoustic emission is the topic for discussion."

#212 Inspection Coordination: Standardization for Improvement Source Inspections Performance

Ysolda Rujano, PREGO Energy Quality Consulting

The ITP is the reference for the critical stages of fabrication, inspection and testing; it establishes the applicable documents, the acceptance criteria, records and define the inspection points. An appropriate ITP could make the difference between a successful and a poor performance project. The importance of the ITP increases when the technical requirements, inspections and tests are beyond the standards, i.e., if the project has limitation for the carbon content on carbon steel plates, that are more strict than the standard material specification (ASTM, API), the review and approval of MTR’s before starting fabrication must be a rule. This presentation proposes a practical methodology for the standardization of the ITP and the inspection process, for those source inspections carried out through Third Parties.

#214 Developments in Fatigue Screening Criteria for Pipining Vibration Assessments

Michael Bifano, The Equity Engineering Group

Updated vibration fatigue screening criteria are presented for the evaluation of mainline piping vibration.  The presented limits form the technical basis for an API 579 Level 1 Fatigue Screening Criteria.  Commonly used limits are typically justified by experience and lack a well-documented technical basis. The screening limits were developed using 20,000 randomly generated candidate piping models using Finite Element Analysis.  The models were evaluated using high-cycle welded joint fatigue curves for both constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading. The proposed criteria align with prior industry used limits rooted in substantial experience. However, this work justifies a reduction in conservatism of the historical limits thereby reducing the possibility for unnecessary piping support changes or costly piping rework resulting in operational down-times.  Two case studies are presented.

#215 Inspector Training Post Certification

Tony Medina, PinnacleART

The API certification examination is one of the most difficult exams that some of us will take in our lifetimes, but what comes next. Too often a clear path forward is not given and newly minted inspectors are sent forth to learn on their own and with limited guidance. By instituting a mentoring and training program, the learning curve can be greatly reduced, valuable knowledge from senior inspectors can be passed on to junior inspectors, and the overall quality and value of inspections can be greatly enhanced. API certification is not the end, it is only the beginning.

#217 Cultivate and Grow Inspection Leaders – Proven Solutions

Taylor Breault, PinnacleART

The most critical element of a quality inspection is the individual responsible for reporting the equipment’s integrity. During this presentation attendees will review and discuss the themes of several case studies where inexperienced employees experienced accelerated growth. We can increase the quantity of outstanding inspection leaders by molding these themes into techniques and resources that facilitate a shortened development timeline. With the proper tools arranged in a clear structure, employees are empowered to catalyze their growth and fill the industry need.

#218 “Water Repellency of Industrial Insulation”

Jack Blundell, Rockwool Technical Insulation

"There are a wide variety of insulation products used for industrial applications. Stone (mineral) wool insulation is a common insulation material and is an excellent choice for high-temperature systems. While mineral wool insulation is frequently used, the significant variations in the water repellency properties within the mineral wool family are not well understood. Since mitigating corrosion under insulation (CUI) is a challenge, it is important to choose an insulation with characteristics to best counter the harmful effects of CUI. This presentation is intended to educate the audience on the water repellency properties of mineral wool products with different types of hydrophobic treatment, as well as the effects on corrosion. It will also introduce a new/innovative hydrophobic additive that offers superior water repellency performance."

#220 Improve Thickness Survey Data Management Using Connected, Cloud Enabled Instruments

Erich Henjes, Olympus Corporation of Americas

Development of connected ultrasonic inspection instruments, along with mobile applications, and Cloud based software solutions are enabling rapid efficiency gains in the management of data collected during corrosion thickness surveys. Real-time transfer of thickness data from inspection device to applications via the internet allow for rapid data analysis and reporting, easy access to progress in inspection tasks, and substantial reduction or elimination of manual data processing. The efficiency gains in data management enabled by these technologies allow for more measurement points per inspector per day, reduction in errors that can be introduced with manual processes, and continuous provisioning of new inspection points to the instrument and operator as sections of the overall job are completed and data is pushed to the Cloud or mobile application.

#222 Instrumented Indentation Test to measure tensile properties in field

Dongseong Ro, Frontics America

IIT (Instrumented indentation test) have been studied as an effective NDT (non-destructive test) method to evaluate the mechanical properties. These test method is applicable in situations where general destructive tests cannot be conducted, for example, on in-service structures such as Oil& Gas pipeline and Chemical plants. Since the reliability and safety assessment of these systems have become key issues, the need for nondestructive test method such as IIT has also increased. In this study, we introduce IIT and how to apply in-field. In addition, we will show you a guideline on how to select a test location on pipe.

#224 Baseline Heat Exchanger Inspections to Reduce Costs and Unscheduled Downtime

Timothy Rush, Mistras Group, Inc.

Mechanical damage and manufacturing defects can make their way from the manufacturing mills to shops and from the shops into heat exchanger bundles. The importance of baseline inspections provides cost savings up front vs. the costs incurred during operations due to unexpected failures, unscheduled down time, and safety. Performing baseline inspections on exchangers helps to ensure the tubes are free from I.D. or O.D. defects caused by mechanical or manufacturing defects that would affect the integrity of the tube performance. This presentation will discuss the importance of performing baseline inspections and the protocol to follow during heat exchanger examinations.

#225 Continuous Monitoring of Assets

Mike Wechsler, Mistras Group, Inc.

"The need for continuous monitoring of assets remains a focus within our industry.  As technology advances, this allows us to increase data collection in areas that were previously limited to the physical presence of a technician and their equipment.  With the increase in productivity and access challenges, these options become more attractive and reliable. This presentation will discuss involving continuous data collection during a crucial equipment startup, in attempts to gain foresight and advanced notice to avoid any potential issues."

#226 Moving Ultrasonic Data without Cabling

Mike Wechsler, Mistras Group, Inc.

Our ability to transfer data from one medium to another has skyrocketed in the last several years, from FTP sites, to wireless, to the cloud.  Every year things are getting faster and more efficient, allowing us the potential to now move ultrasonic data more efficiently.  This presentation will discuss a project in which encoded ultrasonic data from a Phased Array system and scanner was transferred to a computer/analyzing station without cabling.

#227 Mobile/Digital Inspection & Testing for Mechanical Integrity Programs

Russ Davis, Mistras Group, Inc.

Traditional MI field inspections and testing have been paper-based. Technological advances now are contributing to the quality and efficiency of the field MI program. This presentation will discuss how advances in inspection and testing data gathering and reporting are leading to better quality and efficiency. The mobile devices allow almost real-time engineering analysis and field data gathering.  This presentation will also discuss how data analysis is contributing to more predictive MI programs. Currently huge amount of data can be collected and predictive analytics can be utilized for better life assessments of critical equipment. Mobile field technology is contributing to both data gathering and data analysis to increase program efficiencies and minimize wasted time and resources.

#229 On Stream Corrosion Monitoring for Industrial Processing Piping

Sam Ternowchek, Mistras Group, Inc.

Implementing a comprehensive corrosion monitoring program for industrial processing piping involves the use of several monitoring technologies. Two key items of information for a monitoring system are how corrosive is the material flowing though the piping and what effect is it having on the piping. Described in this presentation is an on-stream monitoring system that utilizes a new insertion style probe that is based on material loss as a measurement of the corrosiveness of the process material. It also incorporates permanent ultrasonic thickness transducers attached to the piping in key areas. Data is transferred via a wireless HART network for processing. The data can be displayed locally vis DCS or remotely via a web page.

#230 Increasing Uptime and Plant Reliability by Deploying Asset Monitoring Solutions

Arturo Nunez, Mistras Group, Inc.

"Traditionally, periodical testing of assets has been the method of choice to evaluate their integrity. This approach can have some disadvantages such as erroneous measurements, unavailability of the asset for testing or testing using different instrumentation settings/techniques. The development of instrumentation for continuous monitoring allows the inspection intervals to be reduced significantly as well as to be able to monitor the asset during the very different operating conditions it experiences, hence allowing to identify correlation between fault mechanisms (cracks, leaks, corrosion, arcing, etc.) and the operation of the asset. This paper presents different applications where asset monitoring is used for detecting active faults in power transformers, tube leaks in boilers, cracks on combustion turbines, and thickness measurements. Case studies where of monitoring benefits are presented."

#231 Value Versus Cost: MI Quality Assurance/Quality Control Processes

Holley Baker, The Mistras Group, Inc.

This presentation will describe QA requirements for MI in the PSM rule, including impact on design, construction, installation, and maintenance from a value versus cost perspective. It reviews QA issues including missed design opportunities, fabrication defects, non-compliance to specifications, shipping damage, and improper installations.  The industry can benefit from a better understanding of the regulatory view of QA. This presentation will provide valuable insight into proven QA programs and relationships to design, vendor qualification and surveillance, new installations and spare parts and will include recommendations for resolution.  This presentation explores the boundaries of acceptable reliance on vendors and provides relevant information to management and field personnel. It explains the value of defining, establishing and maintaining appropriate practices necessary for the quality of critical assets.

#232 Automated Radiography of In-Service Piping

John Musgrave, Mistras Group, Inc.

The use of automated radiography, for both the detection of corrosion under insulation (CUI) and the presence of internal pitting, has been developed and refined over the last decade in the Alaska upstream environment.  With advancements in the technology, the methods used in the upstream environment are now applicable in the midstream and downstream segments of the industry.  In specific applications, this automated technique is 20 times as productive as the corresponding manual techniques.

#233 Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) of Pressure Vessels

Jonathan Burns, Mistras Group, Inc.

"Pressure equipment has traditionally called for internal visual inspections augmented with applicable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) to evaluate a pressure vessel’s suitability for continued service. This burden is expensive and inherently unsafe. Recent internationally recognized and generally acceptable good engineering practice (RAGAGEP) makes allowances for non-intrusive inspections (NII) when the external NDE provides data which is as good as, or better than that provided by an internal inspection. The advancements in NDE technology now enable the user to extract detailed information relating to the integrity of the pressure vessel, which in many cases is better than that which can be obtained by an internal visual inspection; it also provides a much safer alternative. This presentation will outline how to implement an NII program."

#234 Detection & Sizing of Stress Corrosion Cracking

John Ferguson, Mistras Group, Inc.

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the most prominent damage mechanisms in the industrial world. This damage mechanism plagues an assortment of types of equipment, components and materials. Commonly used methods, such as MT and PT, only provide detection and encounter several limitations that include coatings, process scale, and other surface changes. Advanced electromagnetic applications have the ability to not only detect, but also to size the depth of stress corrosion cracking. Knowing, selecting, and applying the proper surface electromagnetic technique can be crucial in making prolonged runs, creating repair/ replacement plans, and avoiding unexpected shut downs. This presentation will detail different electromagnetic applications that include surface eddy current array (SECT), tangential eddy current array (TECA), and alternating current field measurement (ACFM).

#235 Corrosion Blisters & Blooms Evaluation - Pulsed Eddy Current Testing

Timothy Rush, Mistras Group, Inc.

Several environmental components contribute to areas of corrosion in piping. These conditions often result in corrosion blisters/blooms. These corrosion blisters/blooms can cause complications when attempting to accurately size the remaining wall thickness of these areas without removal. A solution for these obstacles is to perform Pulsed Eddy Current Testing (PECT). This application is an electromagnetic technique that is used in detecting wall loss in ferrous materials under layers of coating, fireproofing, or insulation. This technique has recently been performed to measure estimated wall thickness under corrosion blisters/blooms through direct contact. This presentation will detail these examinations and the path moving forward to safely and effectively determine the remaining wall thickness of this type of defect mechanism.

#237 Eddy Current Array versus Penetrant Testing for Inspecting Stainless Steel

James Bittner, Olympus Corporation of the Americas

"For decades, penetrant testing (PT) has been the method of choice for inspecting the surface of stainless steel alloys. However, PT is ineffective on painted surfaces, adding costs that can be more expensive than the inspection itself. The recent technological advances in eddy current array (ECA) technology make it possible to inspect stainless steel alloys through paint and coatings. Using ECA to inspect through paint is an effective way to save time and reduce costs.The latest orthogonal-type ECA uses a flexible printed circuit board (PCB) and dedicated software to reduce the effect of liftoff, enabling a more uniform inspection on uneven surfaces. Resulting is a cleaner signal and a faster, more reliable inspections, solution benefits refineries and petrochemical and power plants."

#238 Non-Destructive-Based Asset Management Techniques for High-Pressure LDPE Equipment

Myles Parr, Structural Integrity Associates

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) assets, particularly operating in the high-pressure regime, pose series of challenges unique to high-pressure assets.  Some of these challenges include access restrictions, small diameter deep bores, thick sections, weld overlays, complex geometries, and small crack size thresholds.  To address these challenges, advanced surface-based (Eddy Current Array) and volumetric (Phased Array Ultrasonic and Guided Wave Testing) non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques are used to compliment Fitness-for-Service evaluation protocols.  Applying these modern techniques in new designs, and updating of in-service inspection plans for this high-pressure equipment can lead to a more accurate assessment of the equipment’s Fitness-for-Service, reduced maintenance costs, proper asset management of key capital equipment, and reduced turn-around time.

#243 Corrosion Under Insulation: A Proactive vs Reactive Approach

Kara Boyer, PinnacleART

Studies have shown that corrosion under insulation (CUI) is a $300 billion global problem. During the presentation, attendees will explore factors contributing to CUI that are often undocumented and review a suggested CUI inspection report template. CUI awareness has increased significantly in recent years however, many maintenance departments still struggle with justifying a budget for a CUI preventative maintenance program. Building an effective CUI inspection strategy relies on accurate data and this data is often missing from inspection reports and data management systems. An effective CUI inspection report template is a cost-effective way to collect important data effecting CUI susceptibility analysis and prioritization to better focus maintenance dollars. Following the presentation, attendees will walk away with a better understanding to identify factors contributing to CUI.

#249 Reliability of Nondestructive Testing Data for Fitness-for-Service Assessments

Jafari Morteza, ABSG Consulting Inc.

FFS assessments are based on information collected from nondestructive testing (NDT) methods applied to the flaw/damage being evaluated.  Hence, the reliability of the NDT data becomes a key factor affecting the quality of FFS assessments.  A frequently used quantitative measure of the capability of an NDT method is the probability of detection (POD) which provides the probability of detecting flaws of various sizes under different inspection conditions.  Knowledge of the POD can aide FFS engineers in evaluating NDT method capability and thus, the reliability of NDT data rendered. This presentation provides information on the NDT task group recently formed by API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 committee members to evaluate the reliability of NDT data and its effect on FFS assessments.

#255 RCA of Tube Failure in Waste Heat Boiler

Hassan Alhammad, Kemya (a Sabic & Exxonmobil JV)

"The heat recovery boiler uses the tail gas as a fuel source, which is a byproduct of Carbon Black plant.  It utilizes an SNCR system to control the NOX emissions to the atmosphere. The SNCR system injects urea solution to the tail gas in the evaporator section of the boiler. Frequent failure of super-heater tubes occurs due to uncontrolled urea solution atomization. The unatomized urea solution caused pitting corrosion on the external surface of the tubes leading to long shutdown of the boiler, inspection and long repair led to plant shutdown to avoid violating environmental and sustainability regulations. Thoroughly failure investigation conducted to identify root causes, and resolved issue using cost effective design upgrade to enhance reliability of SNCR and minimize NOX emissions to environment."

#256 A Wireless, Battery Free Permanently Installed Ultrasonic Sensor

Chenghuan Zhong, Inductosense

"Manual ultrasonic testing for material thickness can often result in erroneous data that can frustrate and hinder the inspection effectiveness of an ultrasonic corrosion monitoring program. Permanently installed ultrasonic sensors provide a more reliable and repeatable thickness measurement for measuring and trending material damage mechanisms. Long term, nearly error-free data trending of inherent and service-induced material flaws may also provide confidence in flaw characterization by consistent and stabile ultrasonic measurements. However the installation, wiring and wireless communication requirements of a large scale permanently installed sensor can be cost prohibitive. This presentation discusses a wireless, battery-free permanently installed ultrasonic sensor that is 1/32 inch (0.79 mm) thick and can be installed beneath coatings or insulations without use of wires, wireless gateways or plug and play instrumentation."

#263 Proposed Updates to ASME B31.3 PWHT and Minimum Temperature Requirements

Phillip Prueter, The Equity Engineering Group, Inc.

The 2014 Edition of ASME B31.3, Process Piping, introduced substantial changes to PWHT requirements for P-No. 1 carbon steel materials. Specifically, PWHT is no longer a mandatory requirement (for any wall thickness). Fracture mechanics indicates the lack of a mandatory PWHT requirement for P-No. 1 components generally increases the risk for brittle fracture due to considerable weld residual stresses in as-welded components. Furthermore, recent work has shown the benefits of PWHT often outweigh the potential for decreasing fracture toughness. Given the industry concern regarding potential brittle fracture failures, proposed updates to the ASME B31.3 PWHT and minimum temperature requirements are offered based on modern fracture mechanics. This suggested guidance is consistent with the new Part 3 in the 2019 Edition of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, Fitness-For-Service.

#267 "Dummy Leg Failure-Lessons Learned"

Randal Batiste, Saudi Aramco

"Ras Tanura Refinery experienced loss of containment on an ethane/propane line (10” Tee) in the Natural Gas Liquid Compression (NGL) Plant.  The cause of the leak was severe external corrosion of the pressure piping obstructed by a dummy leg support. Monitoring of pressure piping (>8IN NPS) inside dummy leg supports is an inspection challenge faced by Saudi Aramco Operating facilities. The presentation will include key points of the incident, review the incident investigation report, Ras Tanura Refinery approach to address the inspection of pressure piping obstructed by dummy leg supports, and a Non Destructive Test (NDT) called Multi-reflection and Surface Propagation Wave (MS-UT) to inspect the pressure piping."

#273 Effects of Weld Type Variation on TFM Imaging Techniques

Emilie Peloquinn, Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas

Ultrasonic examination of welded materials is widely used in industrial markets. Phased array technology created improvements to probability of detection and characterization of weld defects. More recently, total focusing method (TFM) imaging has shown enhanced defect resolution and improved geometric flaw representations, especially in the inspection of girth welds used in the construction of pipelines. Predominant ultrasonic approaches for girth welds require zonal discrimination techniques and include lengthy and tedious procedures. The advent of TFM instrumentation has fueled activities illustrating their potential efficiency and imaging value for girth weld inspection. These TFM techniques have been extended to other applications including construction welds.  However, girth weld techniques do not necessarily transfer directly to other weld types. A comparison of TFM results on multiple weld configurations follows.

#274 Phased Array Assisted Analysis Software for Weld Inspections

Nicholas Bublitz, VeriPhase, Inc.

Phased Array is a valuable inspection technique for welds as an alternative to conventional UT methods or radiography. Large amounts of Phased Array encoded data can be collected quickly, but analysis and reporting usually take significantly longer. The analysis process can be considerably expedited by utilizing assisted analysis software that identifies indications while also providing additional analysis tools for quick final disposition of the software generated results. Data quality issues like data dropout and loss of couplant can also be reported automatically, ensuring high quality and code compliant data. Real world case studies will be presented highlighting the benefits of utilizing software for encoded Phased Array weld inspections.

#282 Omnidirectional Magnetostrictive Transducer for Guided Wave Testing of Large Shells

Sergey Vinogradov, Southwest Research Institute

"Application of helical pass guided waves for the testing of large cylindrical shells/pipes has been investigated recently due to their ability to find corrosion in remote and hidden areas. This work describes a plate-application magnetostrictive transducer (MsT) with known characteristics which was incorporated into an automated omnidirectional scanner. This scanner rotates the directed MsT for data collection at regular intervals. Coupling of the transducer to the shell is accomplished using shear wave couplant. Received array of data is used for compiling B-scans and also for imaging utilizing a synthetic aperture focusing algorithm (SAFT). Performance of this new scanner in application to guided wave screening of large cylindrical shells, pipe supports and elbows will be discussed together with potential future directions in technology development."

#287 Preview of API RP 588 – Source Inspection

Peter Hunt, Independent Consultant

API is working on a new SCIMI document covering what an inspector would require in order that they can competently conduct source inspection of new equipment. This presentation is to cover an overview of 588 which includes levels of training of which four distinct levels are identified. Source inspection activities include development of a management program, inspection performance and an extensive review of all pertinent design documents. It also will cover the tools and equipment needed, the various NDE techniques used and how a source inspector can accept that the equipment meets all quality requirements. The various manufacturing & fabrication process are discussed along with discussion on construction of pressure vessels and piping. The presentation will review the contents of the new document.

#294 Compressor Inter-cooler tube Failures by Micro-Biologically Induced Corrosion

Muhammad Bilal, Saudi International Petrochemical Company (SIPCHEM)

Two failures of a compressor inter-cooler on the cooling water side forced outages at a SIPCHEM LDPE/EVA Plant. The failures eventually lead to bundle replacement after only three years of service life. Detailed investigation revealed that failures were primarily due to improper drainage after hydro-test during construction which initiated Micro-Biologically Induced Corrosion Several other factors contributed to these failures including insufficient corrosion inhibitor level, insufficient and inconsistent cooling water monitoring. This case study is intended for broader audience and shall explain investigation details, key findings and major components of an effective cooling water quality management system.

#295 Pressure Safety Valve Integrity Management Using Risk and Reliability Method

Steve Matthews, Petrofac

"An integrated risk and reliability methodology is described that enables focused, cost-effective management of PSVs and enhanced knowledge of PSV performance during operations. A case study, comprising a population of just under 400 PSVs, has demonstrated improvements in PSV risk management since 2009. A key objective of the methodology was to provide a robust, conservative approach for consideration by the local regulatory body, demonstrating that test intervals for PSVs could be safely extended, based on operation, testing and performance assessment. It has enabled year-on-year cost savings allocated to the PSV inventory, spares, transportation, and testing, combined with measurable improvements in PSV risk and reliability performance. It has also enabled appropriate focus on ‘bad actors’, non-critical, PSV performance issues that are often ignored during normal operations."

#301 Inspection of Heat Recovery Steam Generators Using Non Destructive Testing

Shawn Gowatski, TesTex, Inc.

The design of many Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) does not allow access to the inside surface of the tubes for examination without cutting open a header and using complex robotics. These finned tubes are also spaced tightly together. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Technique (LFET) is used to examine Heat Recovery Steam Generator finned tubes from outside diameter. Remote Field Electromagnetic Technique (RFET) is used when access is provided to the inside diameter of the tube. Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) is currently working on projects to develop additional inspection tools for Heat Recovery Steam Generators.

#305 Terminology Standardization in the Energy Industry and Corporate Guidance

John Bringas, Codes and Standards Training Institute (CASTI)

Standard terminology is a critical fundamental of all codes and standards, because without it, good standardization cannot happen. For example, ASTM, ASME, ASM, AWS, ISO, GB, JIS, etc., handle terminology standardization differently, either by peer-reviewed balloted consensus or non-peer reviewed without consensus. Effective standard terminology requires minimal interpretation and must be used consistently. However, the same term may legitimately be used in multiple industries or circumstances where it has different meanings. Also, technology advancements require constant review of existing terms, adding new terms, and deleting old terms. This presentation will include corporate considerations that should be given to technical terminology used in codes and standards and how best to apply standard terminology within their internal specifications, 3rd party contractor specifications, purchase orders, and similar documents.

#307 Impact our Industry with Impact Learning Models

Kelly Caillier, Olivier International

It’s a common phenomenon today, in our industry, that if a program/study course does not produce immediate results, it must not be affective. Courses are crammed in a few consecutive days, and it is believed that intensity and not consistency, will educate and produce integrity leaders. We treat leadership with intensity, not consistency. On the other hand, if a learning program is extended over time and topics are introduced in a drip style each week, are they more effective? I will exhibit during my talk that if the student fundamentally believes in an extended syllabus and is totally committed to learning; impact, leadership, and continuous improvement is the result.

#308 Developing and Sustaining Future Mechanical Integrity Specialists/Leaders

Clay Rodery, C&S Technology LLC

As operating companies lose their experienced specialists through retirement or other means of attrition, the challenge becomes developing and sustaining competent, technical/business savvy individuals to step in and continue to contribute effectively. For younger practitioners, it is a unique opportunity for those who choose to seize it. The presenter will offer insights from his 37-year career as possible tips to aspiring specialists, including: how to be more effective, good technical/communication/behavioral skills to develop, interview tips, and other qualities to enhance their personal and professional value. It will also give insights to managers on what to seek in a specialist, including rewarding and retaining those that they find. The presentation is targeted to engineers but could have applicability to managers and inspectors.

#309 ASME Post Construction Standards: Past, Present & Future

Clay Rodery, C&S Technology LLC

Since forming in the mid/late 1990s and issuing its first standard in 2000, the ASME Post Construction Standards Committee and Subcommittees have filled an industry need to provide sound guidance around maintenance, repair, and inspection planning activities covering equipment built within the scope of ASME pressure technology codes and standards. This presentation overviews how and why the committee and subcommittees were formed, provides details of the standards that have been issued by the committee, and offers some insights on what future activities or areas might be undertaken in the future. Time permitting, attendees will be invited to offer their feedback and input on what future needs are important in their view.

#312 Automating Guided Wave Monitoring Analysis

Thomas Vogt, Guided Ultrasonics, Ltd.

Guided waves (GW) are more and more routinely being used for structural health monitoring applications. The benefit of using GW lies in the fact that large areas can be monitored with relatively few sensors placed on the structure. In the case of GW monitoring of pipes, a single permanently installed sensor can provide full-volumetric coverage of the pipe wall over tens of metres along the length of the pipe. When GW monitoring data is collected frequently and over prolonged periods, data analysis algorithms can be employed that are capable of tracking corrosion growth in the presence of operational and environmental changes. This presentation will show that, when combined with new methods of temperature compensation, the analysis can be largely automated.

#314 Advances in Real Time Imaging for CUI Inspection

Eric Neff, QSA Global, Inc.

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is an ever-increasing concern of operations managers, integrity managers, and owners of refineries, petrochemical facilities, power plants, etc. where insulated piping is prevalent. Real time radiography allows for real time, non-destructive, qualitative assessment of insulated piping targeting corrosion itself or other indications corrosion may be present. Mechanisms for real time radiography include neutron backscatter, x-ray backscatter, and fluoroscopy. Backscatter devices use scattered radiation to identify wet insulation. In addition to wet insulation, fluoroscopy devices allow real time imaging of insulation and external pipe walls to identify physical indications of corrosion including external wall loss, scaling, etc.  This talk will focus on advances in fluoroscopy based real time imaging technology and techniques for CUI inspection targeting client KPIs.

#322 Benefits of Phased Array vs. Radiographic Testing

Chad Ivy, Versa Integrity Group

"In recent years, the utilization of Phased Array to offset Radiography has become an industry trend and code accepted practice. The advantages of Phased Array that will be discussed will be Health and Safety, Quality/Reliability, Cost Savings, Inspection Time, Critical Flaw Sizing, Digital Data Storage, and Reliability of the exam. No Health and Safety implications/risks with using ionizing radiation. Close Proximity work tasks in the same area do not have to be suspended Faster inspection with Real Time volumetric inspection results (Accept/Reject) Encoded PAUT will produce permanent inspection records with out requiring a large space for film storage PAUT allows defect height and depth measurement allowing volumetric consideration of flaw severity vs. just type and length."

#323 Enhancements to FMC and TFM Methods: moving beyond PAUT for Oil & Gas NDT Applications

Alan Caulder, Advanced OEM Solutions

"Full Matrix Capture (FMC) and the Total Focusing Method (TFM) are revolutionizing phased array ultrasound. FMC and TFM are advanced acquisition and post-processing techniques, respectively, and can be implemented real-time for inspection purposes.  FMC/TFM family provides many benefits over conventional Phased Array, with unique features, such as: a real-time high resolution reconstruction grid, viewing of several wave modes from one setup, improved vertical and lateral resolution, higher signal to noise ratio, improved flaw characterization and sizing, and reduced misinterpretation of geometric echoes versus defects.  Raw FMC data can be saved and reprocessed later with improved signal processing algorithms. We will present a fundamental detailing of the FMC/TFM family.  We also propose an adaptive approach to TFM (ATFM)  to take into account a complex specimen shape."

#325 Review of Applications Using Updated FMC/TFM Methods

Dominique Bracconier, The Phased Array Company

"The Total-Focusing-Method family of ultrasonic imaging techniques, such as SAFT, TFM, and AFM, are becoming increasingly industrialized and available for field applications.  These techniques offer many benefits over conventional Phased Array UT; superior resolution, an overall improved ability to qualify and quantify defects, surprising simplicity of setups, and in some cases, breaking of attenuation and scattering noise. This paper proposes to review at an early stage, a range of applications using TFM techniques utilizing relatively low cost instruments, as well as state of the art solutions to complex inspection applications.  Some of the applications to be discussed will be; girth weld inspection, composite inspection (specifically CFRP), as well as detection of traditionally challenging damage mechanisms such as HIC (Hydrogen Induced Cracking) and Hydrogen Embrittlement."

#326 Robotic Inspections for Industrial Assets

Brandon Tigges, Gecko Robotics, Inc.

"Traditional inspections for industrial assets are antiquated, take too much time to complete, and gather less than 3% of the data that you need to be confident in making maintenance decisions; not to mention expensive. Robotic inspections can perform many facets of NDT inspections including UT, Magnetic Induction, Laser Profilometry, and Visual, gathering 1000X more data, while saving money and completing a full inspection in a fraction of the time, safely. Understand how companies have been using this competitive advantage to gain confidence in preventative maintenance measures implemented company-wide."

#332 Success Through Data Implementation Challenges

Larry Green, Williams Co.

The implementation challenges of an IDMS database faced by a large natural gas processing and transportation company. Why our large organizational size with over 72 PSM and 700 Non-PSM facilities and years of organizational growth through asset acquisition in different operating conditions introduced varying challenges. The lessons learned in our first efforts of implementation and how we made our standardization efforts worse initially. The challenges and lessons learned for combining various operator standards, multiple database systems, and remote documentation into one system. Why developing an implementation plan, standardizing process and procedures prior to implementation is key to IDMS implementation. How employing the right IDMS subject matter experts helped correct initial errors and create best practice procedures going forward.

#336 Improving inspection reliability with advanced nondestructive testing techniques

Shannon Matthewson, Wood

"NDT (nondestructive testing) is a broad term for inspecting and evaluating materials without destroying their serviceability. While inspections are sometimes considered a cumbersome yet necessary evil, their effectiveness in preventing safety incidents and extending asset lifetime is undisputed. With the evolution of common methods such as visual, magnetic, liquid penetrant, ultrasonic and radiographic testing, advanced methods have shown to produce more reliable, repeatable and faster results for operators. These include automated ultrasonic testing, phased array ultrasonic testing, time of flight diffraction and magnetic flux leakage. The goal of this presentation is to illustrate the need for proper inspections, to introduce advanced techniques available to inspectors today and to show how operators can ensure safety, prevent damage and save costs by implementing a proper inspection program."

#343 Inspection Careers - Where to Begin, Where to Go “Next”.

Kimberley Meszaros, Codes and Standards Training Institute (CASTI)

The career choices available in the inspection industry are limitless, however, the choice of where to begin an inspection career or where to go “next” is not straightforward. The discussion will begin with an overview of inspection certifications for current inspectors, engineers, NDE examiners, and technical personnel. Next, the entry-point options will be discussed, including required and recommended prerequisite qualifications. Finally, a discussion of the various career paths that can be chosen will be presented in a graphical format. The presentation will focus on API, NACE, AWS, TWI, IIW, CSA, and other international inspector certification programs.

#357 Quantifying Infrared Temperature Corrections; From Art to Science

Nagy Wassef, Quest Integrity

"The application of infrared (IR) thermometry is an excellent diagnostic tool for detecting hot spots and heat distribution non-uniformity in fired heater tubes. In order to fully capture the complete capability of IR, a proven methodology is essential to measure accurate temperatures in a repeatable process, ensuring the long-term integrity of fired heater assets. This presentation will feature a real-world case study, co-presented with an operator, and will discuss specific aspects involved in obtaining accurate and repeatable infrared temperature measurements of fired heater tubes. The project involved IR temperature measurement on a cabin heater, and demonstrates a number of common errors (and solutions) encountered during IR surveys. Further case study examples will illustrate the environmental and instrumental factors of an effective IR inspection program."

#377 Chevron NDE Performance Demonstration Qualification Testing

Michael Sens, Chevron

This presentation will cover Chevron's 30 years of experience in non-destructive testing performance demonstration qualification of technicians. Topics covered in this presentation will span the history of the program, methods covered in the program, statistical data and observations of results, as well as the future of the program with further developments and how they will affect the industry.

#385 Handheld Analyzer for Carbon, CE Determination in Pipeline, Refinery Materials

Don Sackett, SciAps, Inc.

A handheld technology is presented for in-field analysis of carbon content and carbon equivalents in steels and stainless.  The method is now acknowledged by API RP 578, Third Edition.  The device uses laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) – an established laboratory technique now miniaturized.  LIBS fires a pulsed laser to vaporize the material to form a plasma.  The plasma cools, the electrons recombine with the atoms, and emit characteristic light in the UV, visible and infra-red.  A spectrometer measures the light at various wavelengths to measure concentrations of C, Si, Al, Cr, Ni, Mo, Cu, V, Nb, Ti, Mn, W, Pb and other elements, and calculates carbon equivalents.   Selected results, test methods and PMI best practices learned from 250 installations worldwide  will be presented.

#387 The Ultimate Safety Moment

David Bajula, Acuren

"Industrial and workplace safety are pretty much mainstream. What doesn’t always get talked about is the “quality” of work that is performed or the minimum quality level that is expected. The presentation will discuss how a unique harmony of training, knowledge and experience is paramount to the NDT inspection performance and bring attention to many human factors that are not always considered including a parallel with HEART and the sense of urgency for Honesty, Excellence, Accuracy, Respect and Teamwork, all of which is required to ensure that Ultimate Safety is achieved. Although the “Ultimate Safety Moment” was initially intended for our Level II technician population this will also benefit operational management, QA/QC personnel, audit personnel and general management."

#389 Benefits of DDA X-ray for Corrosion Damage Mechanisms

Brian Anderson, Acuren

Over recent years large strides have been made in application, development, and utilization of Digital Detector Arrays (DDAs) in field radiography environments (an application previously limited to film and computed radiography [CR] techniques). The use of DDAs for the damage mechanisms for localized corrosion particularly when it comes to accessing (imaging) and accurate measurement  including depth measurement highlights significant  industry benefits. These advancements include safety, access, speed, temperature, and overall workflow process improvement .  The corrosion applications of focus for DDA implementation will be corrosion & erosion, (CUI/Scabs), Flow Assisted Corrosion, Detection, and & Measurement and Corrosion under pipe supports.

#393 The Three Key Pieces of an Integrity Management System

Jeremy Staats, Becht Engineering

Gerrit Buchheim, Becht Engineering

Steve Bolinger, Becht Engineering

This talk discusses 3 key pieces of an integrity management system - implementing CCD’s /IOW’s per API 970 and API 584, and suing that knowledge to improve RBI plans in the IDMS system.  Some companies have implemented CCD’s/IOW’s and RBI for many years, where other refiners and chemical facilities programs are just being implemented.  The benefit and need to used knowledgeable and experience process engineering support when implementing RBI, CCD's and IOW's will also be covered. Once the potential damage has been properly assessed and documented in a CCD/IOW program, that info can be used to create detailed inspection plans in the IDMS system based on RBI.  The IOW’s ensure that the basis of the CCD/RBI remains relevant. Key lessons learned will be shared.

#394 The Value of Using Dimensional Technologies for Digitalization of the Physical Asset

Matthew Craig, Becht Engineering

Digitalization is fast becoming a requirement for most asset owners that are starting to mandate a digital record of everything that comprises the physical asset. The common phrase used to describe the digital asset is the “Digital Twin”. Technology advancements in digitalization has made this an achievable goal; however, the work processes that these technologies enable have not progressed at the same pace, and in some instances, they have regressed. One case in point is the use of dimensional technologies, which is used for documenting as-is conditions, dimensional verification and inspection, and dimensional layout. The objective of this presentation is to shed light on the value proposition of using dimensional technologies coupled with well defined work processes to achieve a cost-effective and accurate digital twin of the physical asset.

#395 Sprint Robotics Non-intrusive Inspection and Maintenance

Eric Sjerve, IRISNDT

Rapid advances in robotics, data analytics and wireless technologies have the potential to revolutionize the way NDT is performed. This would make plant operation safer by reducing exposure of personnel to hazardous environments, and introduction of these technologies will provide significant economic benefits. Despite these obvious advantages, industry acceptance of these new technologies is likely to be slow. Previous experience with other innovations in our industry has shown adoption typically takes upwards of 20 years. The causes of slow industry adoption of new robotic technologies will be analysed and an argument will be made for Sprint Robotics, an industry lead collaborative. This novel approach for significant speed up of market adoption through an end-user led collaboration across the value chain will be described.

Sponsor & Exhibitor Prospectus - The 2019 Inspection Summit exhibit hall is sold out. Please email to be put on the contact list for 2021.

Exhibitor Floor Plan

Exhibitor Registration

Deadline for registering your additional staff: 5:00 PM EST, January 18, 2019. Please identify your exhibit staff early!

Each exhibiting company receives one full conference registration with the purchase of booth space. In addition, exhibiting companies may register up to three additional staff for the full conference at a discounted rate of $495 each. Discount codes will be provided to the “Main Contact” listed on your exhibitor application upon email confirmation of your booth assignment. If you have not received these codes, please contact

Platinum, Gold and Silver sponsors receive complimentary passes as identified in the Sponsorship and Exhibitor Prospectus, in addition to the 3 discounted registrations allotted with the booth.

Exhibit Hours

Tuesday, January 29 7:30 am - 6:30 pm
(with Opening Reception from 5:00 pm - 6:30 pm)
Wednesday, January 30 7:30 am - 5:00 pm
Thursday, January 31 7:30 am - 12:00 pm

Exhibitors are welcome to attend all sessions. API recommends an exhibitor representative be in their booth during the scheduled coffee breaks and receptions.

Exhibit Hall Set-Up and Tear Down 

Set Up
Monday, January 28
10:00 am - 6:00 pm
Tear Down
Thursday, January 31
1:00 pm - 4:00 pm

Exhibitor Order Forms

Each exhibit booth includes: 8' black drape behind booth, 3' black drape between booths, one 6' x 30" skirted exhibit table, Carpet (black, without padding), two side chairs, and one wastebasket. One (1) 120 volt electrical outlet will also be provided to each exhibit booth. Free WiFi is provided throughout the exhibit hall.


2019 Inspection Summit Booth Sample 

Exhibitor is responsible for ordering the following from Freeman:

  • Additional Literature Racks
  • Booth furniture
  • Plants
  • Etc.

Freeman Services Website
Freeman Decorating Services Handbook 

Order early to take advantage of advance order discount rates; Place your order by January 11, 2019.

You can order the same materials in the Decorating Services Handbook above using Freeman Online .

AV Information

To order additional AV services, please use Encore Event Technologies at 224-575-0881. Please click links to access the Encore AV Order Form

and the Encore Credit Card Authorization Form.

Shipping Information

Exhibitors are highly encouraged to ship directly to Freeman. Shipping address details are found in the Freeman Handbook.

The convention center does not have a receiving dock open to accept packages prior to January 28. If shipping to the convention center instead of the recommended Freeman warehouse, your items can arrive at the convention center between 8:00 AM - 6:00 PM on Monday, January 28th. The convention center staff has notified us that in the past they have had several problems with vendors sending their items too early (when the building is closed). Subsequently, they get returned to the sender. If you like, shipping directly to your hotel is another option. If shipping to one of the 3 conference hotels, you are allowed 3 days prior to the day the group starts, however larger items (i.e. palates) need to ship directly to the convention center.

API is unable to provide assistance with any items shipped to the convention center or hotels, and highly recommends all exhibitors utilize sipping through Freeman.

Conference App

The API Inspection Summit mobile app will be available soon to download to your iPhone, iPad, or Android. Note the free conference app is not a lead retrieval app, nor does it have badge scanning functionality.

Once Installed, you'll have instant access to awesome features, like: 

  • The full event schedule
  • The conference attendee list
  • Detailed info about speakers, moderators, and sponsors
  • The exhibitor list
  • Attendee Messaging

An email with app login information will be sent to all registrants approximately January 24th

Cvent LeadCapture

Cvent, the provider of our conference app and registration system, is making available hand-held lead retrieval devices for rent to exhibitors. Information captured included email and phone number. Login Here to create a new account and purchase your device rental. 

Device Rental Pricing

  • Early Bird: $299 (before 1/8)
  • Standard: $349 (after 1/8 but before 1/15)
  • Onsite: $399 (after 1/15 and wile supplies last)

The API Inspection Summit Conference event code for LeadCapture is: 78NYLTBRXKT

Once you have created your account,  additional user information is available here.
For additional support, please contact or 703-226-3535.

Exhibitor Regulations

In adherence to the good neighbor policy, please note the following rules and regulations:
  • All promotional activities and distribution of literature must take place within the confines of the assigned booth. Distribution outside of the confines of the booth, including all API and Westin public areas is strictly prohibited.
  • If a booth noise level is particularly disturbing or disruptive, Show Management will direct that the noise be turned down. Booth activities deemed too disruptive may be discontinued at Show Management's discretion.
  • All speakers must face inward and not out towards the aisles or neighboring Exhibits. Exhibitors found in non-compliance, will be required to modify the direction of the speakers to a more suitable position.
  • A maximum height of eight feet is allowed only in the rear half of the booth space, with a four foot height restriction on all materials (product or equipment) in the front half of the booth. No booth element can impede the aisles. End-cap or 20x20 booths must not impeded line-of-sight above four feet to the front 5 feet of neighboring booth.
  • All booths should be designed in such a way so as to eliminate line of sight obstructions from one exhibit to the next.
  • Delivery or removal of any portion of an exhibit will not be permitted during exhibit hours.

Exhibitor Floor Plan

Sponsors & Exhibitors Booth Number
RCP 100
Stronghold Inspection 104
Amerapex Corporation
Proceq USA 108
MFE Rentals 109
ABS Group
TesTex, Inc. 112
WJE 113
CoreStar International Corp 115
CM Diagnostics & NDT Spot Inc 116
Northern Inspection Services, LLC 118
ViewTech Borescopes 119
Consulting and Field Services, LLC 120
Mobile Reach 121
Oplii 200
Eddyfi Technologies 201
The Phased Array Company
Intertek 208
SciAps, Inc 209
Tulsa Inspection Resources 210
ASTM International 211
Ameriscan LLC 213
Pro-Surve Technical Services 214
PK Technology 215
Thermo Fisher Scientific 216
Spitfire Aerial Services 217
Sentinel Integrity Solutions 218
AsInt, Inc.
Curran International
Quest Integrity 304
Team Industrial 305
Provenance Consulting
IRed Thermal Group LTD 309
Fortress Oil & Gas, LLC 310
Advanced Corrosion Technologies & Training 311
QSA Global, Inc 312
MPM Products 313
OES Asset Integrity Management 315
ClampOn Inc. 316
Lloyd's Register
Magnetec Inspection, Inc. 320
The Equity Engineering Group 405
JIREH Industries 408
NVI 409
Hocker, Inc. 410
Frontics America 411
NDT Seals, Inc. 412
Metegrity Inc. 413
Guided Wave Analysis LLC
Sonaspection 415
Ingu Solutions 416
Doxsteel Fasteners 417
Irisndt Inc. 418
Stress Engineering Services 419
Olympus America Inc. 505
Sensor Networks, Inc. 508
FlawTech America, LLC 509
Turner Specialty Services, LLC 510
Inspection Plug Strategies, LLC 511
Operational Sustainability, LLC 512
Becht Engineering Co. Inc 513
Speir Hunter North America
Metal Analysis Group 516
CodeWest 517
Premium Inspection & Testing 518
Acuren Industrial Services
HMT 520
U.S. Thermal Technology 600
McDowell Safety
INOVX Solutions 602
Siemens 604
Versa Integrity Group 605
Access Plug Flange, Inc. 608
Mobideo 609
Lavender International NDT USA LLC 610
Dakota Ultrasonics 611
Structural Group 614
VMI 615
G2 Integrated Solutions 616
Guided Ultrasonic Ltd 618
Mistras Group, Inc. 619
Hitachi High-Tech Analytical Science America, Inc. 620
Zetec 703
Sentry Equipment Corp 705
Zerust Oil & Gas 707
CTI Industries, Inc. 708
Sonomatic Inc. 709
DJA Inspection Services, Inc. 710
Gecko Robotics 712
PinnacleART 713
DÜRR NDT GmbH & Co. KG 714
Koch Specialty Plant Services 716
Ionix Advanced Technologies 717
Wood PLC 719

Platinum Sponsors

Conference AppEquity
Conference LanyardMistras
Luncheon Jan. 29 Siemens
Luncheon Jan. 30 Stronghold
Luncheon Jan. 31Stress
Conference BagTeam
Epic Pool PartyVersa
Opening ReceptionWood

Gold Sponsors

Continental Breakfast Jan. 29Magnetec
Continental Breakfast Jan. 30HMT
Continental Breakfast Jan. 31Intertek

Silver Sponsors

Mid-Morning Coffee Break: Jan. 29Quest
Mid-Morning Coffee Break: Jan. 30Lloyds
Mid-Morning Coffee Break: Jan. 31Sentinel
Mid-Afternoon Snack Break: Jan. 29Olympus
Speaker Breakfast: Jan. 29 - 31Auren
John Reynolds

Mountains We Have Climbed – Mountains We Still Need to Climb

My talk will be about FEMI Mountains we have climbed, i.e. the most significant fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) accomplishments we have made over the last few decades. But lest we get complacent there are FEMI mountains we still need to climb, i.e. the FEMI challenges we still need to overcome to further reduce FEMI incidents in our industry. In my younger, slimmer, fitter, more adventurous, more vigorous years of life (the summer years of my life), I was a mountain climber. I summited 32 mountains in the Rockies, the Cascades, the Canadian Coastal Range and Alaska. Climbing mountains was not easy for me, but it is exhilarating, breath-taking and provides a sense of accomplishment once you reach the summit. The view from the summit is always worth the climb. Mountain climbing gave me confidence in myself and taught me a lot about life, e.g. that I could achieve most anything that I set my mind to. It taught me that I could rely on myself and that I could go above and beyond what I thought I was capable of. It also taught me that if I was going to achieve even bigger things I would need to be a part of a like-minded team of climbers who all relied on each other to get safely up and down the mountain each time. Today I celebrate for the past 50 years having been a part of a like-minded team of FEMI mountain climbers whose goal is to continue to summit more FEMI mountains.

Today I find myself well beyond my physical mountain climbing days and deep into the winter of my FEMI career. There are not enough years left to do all the things I still want to do. So in my talk, I will celebrate the FEMI achievements we have collectively realized and encourage us all to set our sights on even more FEMI accomplishments. In my talk at this Summit I will summarize some of those FEMI summits that our team of mountain climbers has achieved and mention some of those FEMI mountains that we still need to conquer.

John Reynolds is a Principal Consultant with Intertek Asset Integrity Management, Inc. Prior to this he was a Master Engineering Consultant with Shell Oil's Westhollow Technology Center in Houston. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin with degrees in Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering, John joined Shell in 1968 and retired from Shell in 2006. Over the 37+ years of employment with a number of the Shell companies, John held various engineering and management positions at Shell's refining and chemical processing sites, as well as central offices in the United States and Europe. Along the way, one of John's favorite activities was providing leadership for Shell's intranet communities of interest dealing with the 101 Essential Elements of Fixed Equipment Mechanical Integrity (FEMI). The focus of John's entire 50+ year career has been on establishing and improving FEMI programs in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. As part of that continuing goal, another of his favorite activities is continuing participation in the API/AFPM Process Safety Site Assessment Program (PSSAP) as one of the FEMI specialists providing feedback to operating sites that seek to improve their FEMI programs.

Since retiring from Shell, John has remained active in FEMI activities serving as an industry consultant and expert witness for numerous refining and petrochemical companies. He has been and is currently the master editor for several API Standards on Inspection and FEMI-related topics, and remains active in both the API Subcommittee on Inspection and Mechanical Integrity (SCIMI) and the ASME Post- Construction Committee (PCC). John is the past Chairman of the API Subcommittee on Inspection, the API Task Group on Inspection Codes, the API Task Group on NDE Technology, the API Task Group on API 580 RBI, and the API User Group on Risk-Based Inspection. He has also been the Downstream Business Sector Lead for the Planning Committee of the API Inspection Summit since its inception in 2007. Over the years, John has authored more than 90 articles and/or presentations on FEMI subjects, many of which have been published with Inspectioneering Journal and are summarized in his book "101 Essential Elements in a Pressure Equipment Integrity Management Program."

San Luis
5222 Seawall Boulevard
Galveston, Galveston Island, TX 77551
Call: 409-744-1500
Room Rate: $175, Mention API Group Rate
Reservation Deadline: December 31, 2018 or until room block is sold out

Hilton Galveston Island
5400 Seawall Boulevard
Galveston, Texas, 77551
Online Reservations - Available Soon
Call: 409-744-5000
Room Rate: $165, Mention API Group Rate
Reservation Deadline: December 31, 2018 or until room block is sold out

Holiday Inn
5002 Seawall Boulevard
Galveston, Texas, 77551
Online Reservations - Available Soon
Call: 409-740-3581
Room Rate: $145, Mention API Group Rate
Reservation Deadline: December 31, 2018 or until room block is sold out

Avoid Housing Scams

Note: API has not contracted with any third party for hotel arrangements and will not call or email you directly to make housing arrangements on your behalf.

Should you receive a call or email from a third-party provider, please collect as much information as you can and let us know immediately. “Room Poachers” have been known to act as representatives of API, or authorized providers of API, to offer room discounts or alternative accommodations to our attendees – often to the attendee’s detriment. These companies are not affiliated with API, and reservations made through these companies for our meeting cannot be guaranteed.

How It Works

This deceptive practice (called “room poaching”) is carried out by third‐party companies that act as travel agencies, wholesalers, or even API to solicit registrants for room reservations. The poacher might inform registrants that the hotel room block is “sold out,” and that if you do not book with them immediately, you may not get a room. Room poachers make it more difficult for us to meet our room block commitments, and expose us to penalties and increased room rates for our events. Room poachers often don’t deliver on promises to customers. When customers arrive, reservations are non‐existent or the hotels are not conveniently located. Sometimes the rooms have been cancelled and hefty cancellation fees have been placed on the customer’s credit card.

Don’t Be Deceived

If you are contacted by anyone asking if you need a room for the API Conference, please get as much information as you can (their name, company name, phone number, etc.) and pass it along to Always make your room reservation directly with the information provided by API or a trusted source.

API will use all legal means possible to prevent these groups from operating.

Please contact with any questions.