Advanced hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are the technology engines driving America’s ongoing energy renaissance – surging oil and natural gas production that ranks first in the world. This oil and natural gas production, enabled by hydraulic fracturing, strengthen U.S. energy security, boost the economy and lower consumer energy costs. In addition, the increased use of cleaner-burning natural gas is the main reason U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation are at their lowest level in 25 years.
The underground disposal of produced waters from oil and natural gas (O&G) operations has proven to be a safe and environmentally reliable means of managing this water. Currently, there are nearly 172,000 Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) wells regulated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Safe Drinking Water Act and delegated to 31 state agencies. These wells, used for salt water disposal, enhanced oil recovery, and hydrocarbon storage, serve a vital role by supporting the responsible and sustainable development of O&G resources. These O&G Class II UIC wells are a subset of the more than 800,000 permitted UIC wells nationwide which serve the needs of many different industries and governmental entities.
In our on-going effort toward continued improvement of oil and natural gas operations, in May of 2011, API completed a series of industry guidance documents, of which portions were pertinent to hydraulic fracturing. This led to a two-day workshop titled Commitment to Excellence in Hydraulic Fracturing in Pittsburgh, PA in October of 2011 to formally discuss the content of the HF series documents. The initial meeting was followed 14 additional workshops across the country from January – May 2012 educating the industry, the public, the media, and federal and state legislators and regulators about the API’s standard setting process and the HF series.
The report by Catalyst Environmental Solutions showing that the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) finding of no widespread effects to drinking water quality is supported by state and federal regulatory reviews, and dozens of recent peer-reviewed case studies.
Offshore, a form of sand control technology has been in commercial use since the early 1990’s. Offshore sand control technology combines two mature oil and gas technologies – hydraulic fracturing and gravel pack completions. The result has been a significant improvement in well life and reliability, productivity, and oil and gas recovery.
This document contains recommended practices for onshore well construction and fracture stimulation design and execution as it relates to well integrity and fracture containment.
This document provides recommended practices applicable to the planning and operation of wells, and hydraulically fractured wells. Topics covered include recommendations for managing environmental aspects during planning; site selection; logistics; mobilization, rig-up, and demobilization; and stimulation operations. Also, this document includes guidance for managing environmental aspects during well construction.
The Community Engagement Guidelines are recommendations designed to promote the safe and responsible development of the nation’s oil and natural gas resources by engaging and respecting the communities where these operations occur.
Acidizing is one of the most widely used and effective means available to oil and gas operators for improving productivity (stimulation) of wells.
Wellbore pressure and fluid communication is the ability to detect pressure variations (increases or decreases) and fluid flows between wellbores during hydraulic fracturing.