Other Air Standards
There are other requirements and issues related to clean air. Included are the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for the criteria air pollutants. This NSPS apply to new and modified stationary sources. To implement the NAAQS EPA established requirements for states; EPA reviews and approves these State Implementation Plans (SIPs).
New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)
EPA has issued New Source Performance Standards for over 70 specific source categories. These source-based standards apply to new and modified facilities. Example source categories subject to NSPS are petroleum refineries, equipment leaks of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and many combustion sources. NSPS are incorporated into the facility's operating permit.
State Implementation Plans (SIPs)
The SIPs are used by each state to implement, maintain, and enforce the NAAQS. Regions that have failed to meet the NAAQS for one or more criteria pollutants are designated as nonattainment areas. For ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter nonattainment areas, the 1990 CAA Amendments set new, detailed requirements for controlling emissions based on the seriousness of the attainment problem in a specific area. For example, five categories of ozone nonattainment areas are established ranging from "marginal" to "extreme". Dates for achieving attainment are also provided. Various sanctions for not achieving attainment by the scheduled date are included in the amendments.
To meet SIP requirements, existing air pollution sources in nonattainment areas must install reasonably available control technology. New sources in both nonattainment and PSD areas must perform a New Source Review.