This easy-to-read brochure offers answers to practical and technical questions about cost-effective management, cleanup or closure of sites with groundwater impacted by light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), such as petroleum hydrocarbons.
The Questions (2nd Ed.):
- What is LNAPL?
- What is the biggest new idea that will affect LNAPL management in the future?
- Why is it important to recognize that LNAPL releases evolve with time?
- Are we making progress with LNAPL releases?
- What happens when LNAPL is released?
- How is LNAPL distributed in the subsurface, and why is it important? Why do changes in water levels complicate matters?
- What can we learn from LNAPL thicknesses in wells?
- What causes the complex behavior of LNAPL observed in wells? What can we learn from water quality in wells?
- What can be achieved with hydraulic recovery?
- What can be achieved with soil vapor extraction?
- When are LNAPL bodies stable?
- What makes cleanup of LNAPL releases so challenging?
- What drives natural source zone depletion?
- What is the best way to measure natural source zone depletion rates?
- What is LNAPL recovery to the extent practicable?
- When is vapor intrusion an issue?
- Why are sheens a big issue?
- What causes sheens?
- Can we enhance NSZD rates?
- How long will LNAPL and LNAPL-related impacts to groundwater persist?
- Can temperature be used to monitor LNAPL sites?
- Are there viable alternatives to dredging of hydrocarbon impacted sediments?